The study was designed and financial support obtained by R.S.H., I.P.M.T., M.G.D. and H.C. The manuscript was drafted by R.S.H. and E.W. with contributions from M.G.D. and I.P.M.T. Statistical analyses were conducted by E.W., with contributions from M.C.D.B., J.-B.C., S.L.S. and A.T. E.W. and A.M.P. performed bioinformatic analyses.
Institute of Cancer Research: Subject recruitment and sample acquisition to NSCCG were undertaken by S.P. Coordination of sample preparation and genotyping was performed by P.B. Sample preparation and genotyping performed by A.M.P., K.S., J.V. and S.L. Histology review was by I.C. Testing of MSI was performed by S.L. and I.C.
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics: Subject recruitment and sample acquisition were undertaken by E.B., M.G., L.M. and members of the CoRGI Consortium and D.K. Sample preparation was performed by K.H., S.L.S. and E.J. Genotyping was performed and co-ordinated by L.C.-C., K.H., A.S.T., S.L.S., A.W., E.J. and E.D.
Colon Cancer Genetics Group, Edinburgh: Study design and funding: M.G.D., H.C., A.T., S.M.F. and M.E.P. Subject recruitment and sample acquisition was led by M.G.D., H.C., M.E.P., R.C., S.M.F. and members of the SOCCS/COGS study teams. Sample preparation was co-ordinated by S.M.F. and R.A.B. Histology review: M.G.D. and S.M.F. Genotyping was performed and co-ordinated by S.M.F. and M.G.D. A.T. performed statistical analyses. J.G.P. performed bioinformatic analyses. The following authors from the various collaborating groups conceived the local study, undertook assembly of case/control series in their respective regions, collected data and samples, variously undertook genotyping and analysis: I.N., S.T., A.K. and L.A.A. in Finland; T.K. and P.D.P. in Cambridge; S.S., H.V., S.B., C.S., J.T. and J.H. in Kiel; J.C.-C., M.H. and H.B. in Heidelberg; B.W.Z., A.M., T.J.H. and S.G., in Toronto and Montreal. All undertook sample collection and phenotype data collection and collation in the respective centers.
The full list of authors and affiliations is as follows:
Group 1: Richard S Houlston2, Emily Webb2, Peter Broderick2, Alan M Pittman2, Maria Chiara Di Bernardo2, Steven Lubbe2, Ian Chandler2, Jayaram Vijayakrishnan2, Kate Sullivan2, Steven Penegar2 & Colorectal Cancer Association Study Consortium20
Group 2: Luis Carvajal-Carmona3, Kimberley Howarth3, Emma Jaeger3, Sarah L Spain3, Axel Walther3, Ella Barclay3, Lynn Martin3, Maggie Gorman3, Enric Domingo3, Ana S Teixeira3, CoRGI Consortium20, David Kerr4, Jean-Baptiste Cazier5, Iina Niittymäki6, Sari Tuupanen6, Auli Karhu6, Lauri A Aaltonen6 & Ian P M Tomlinson3
Group 3: Susan M Farrington7, Albert Tenesa7, James G D Prendergast7, Rebecca A Barnetson7, Roseanne Cetnarskyj8, Mary E Porteous8, Paul D P Pharoah9, Thibaud Koessler9, Jochen Hampe10, Stephan Buch10, Clemens Schafmayer11,12, Jurgen Tepel12, Stefan Schreiber11,13, Henry Völzke14, Jenny Chang-Claude15, Michael Hoffmeister16, Hermann Brenner16, Brent W Zanke17, Alexandre Montpetit18, Thomas J Hudson18,19, Steven Gallinger19, International Colorectal Cancer Genetic Association Consortium20, Harry Campbell7 & Malcolm G Dunlop7
Section of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, SM2 5NG, UK. 3
Molecular and Population Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. 4
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Oxford University, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, OX2 6HA, UK. 5
Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. 6
Department of Medical Genetics, Genome-Scale Biology Research Program, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 7
Colon Cancer Genetics Group, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh and MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. 8
Clinical Genetics, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. 9
Cancer Research UK Laboratories, Strangeways Research Laboratory Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 10
Department of General Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstraβe 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. 11
POPGEN Biobank, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. 12
Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse, 24105 Kiel, Germany. 13
Institute for Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. 14
Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin, University Hospital Greifswald, Walther-Rathenau-Strasse 48 Greifswald 17487, Germany. 15
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and 16
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. 17
The Ottawa Health Research Institute, Division of Epidemiology, 501 Smythe Road, Ottawa, Canada, K1H 8L6. 18
The McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, 740 Dr Penfield Avenue, Montreal Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4. 19
Cancer Care Ontario, 620 University Avenue, Toronto Ontario M5G 1L7 and Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, 101 College Street, Toronto, Canada M5G 2L7. 20
A full list of members is provided in the Supplementary Note