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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
J Marriage Fam. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 August 1.
Published in final edited form as:
J Marriage Fam. 2009 August 1; 71(3): 575–591.
doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00620.x

Table 4

Summary of HLM Models Predicting Children’s Behavior and Academic Trajectories with Percent Time in Each Family Structure, and with Stable Family Structure States and Any Family Structure Transitions

Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2

VariableβSE βBSE ββSE ββSE ββSE ββSE β
Intercept at age 6:
 % time in single-mother family by age 60.400.320.400.320.270.360.260.360.220.390.250.39
 Single-mother family at age 60.150.360.100.37−0.190.41−0.210.42−0.270.430.030.45
 Social-father family at age 6−0.400.43−0.340.47−0.250.49−0.210.53−0.140.52−0.100.56
 % time in single-mother family age 6–120.380.37−0.370.410.230.47
 % time in social-father family age 6–120.470.45−0.010.490.420.57
 Always single-mother family age 6–120.400.45−0.320.49−0.070.57
 Always social-father family age 6–120.110.66−0.170.72−0.130.84
 Any family structure transition age 6–120.450.29−0.020.320.380.38
Slope age 6–12:
 % time in single-mother family age0.12*0.05−0.23**0.09−0.14*0.06
 % time in social-father family age 6–120.11*0.06−
 Always single-mother family age 6–120.16**0.05−0.25*0.10−0.19**0.07
 Always social-father family age 6–120.19*
 Any family structure transition age 6–120.11**0.04−0.15+0.08−0.09+0.05

Note: Coefficients and standard errors from HLM models are presented. All of the control variables listed in Table 2 are used to predict children’s initial levels of achievement and behavior. The reference group for the estimates predicting achievement and behavior slopes is “Always two-biological-parent family age 6–12.” Controls for child age, race/ethnicity, gender, and mother’s academic aptitude (AFQT score) are used to predict children’s achievement and behavior slopes.