We developed five questions addressing core features of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa using focus groups of patients with eating disorders and specialists in eating disorders; we tested the questions in a feasibility study of patients and staff at an eating disorders unit. None of these participants was involved in the subsequent study. We created the acronym SCOFF from the questions (box).
The SCOFF questions*
Do you make yourself Sick because you feel uncomfortably full?
Do you worry you have lost Control over how much you eat?
Have you recently lost more than One stone in a 3 month period?
Do you believe yourself to be Fat when others say you are too thin?
Would you say that Food dominates your life?
*One point for every “yes”; a score of
2 indicates a likely case of anorexia nervosa or bulimia
We recruited cases sequentially from referrals to a specialist clinic: 116 women aged 18-40 years who were confirmed as having either anorexia nervosa (n=68) or bulimia (n=48), according to the criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
, fourth edition. We recruited 96 women aged 18-39 as controls; these women, recruited through advertising by local colleges, were confirmed as not having an eating disorder. Cases and controls were asked the SCOFF questions orally; they also completed the eating disorder inventory3
and the BITE self rating scale for bulimia.2
No significant differences existed between cases and controls for age or ethnicity. As expected, more cases than controls were in the highest socioeconomic groups ((P<0.001, χ2
=47.4, df=3), and cases were more likely to be single, separated, or divorced (P<0.001, χ2
=13.0, df=1). Mean length of illness for cases was 8 years (SD 4.81; range 1-25). Mean body mass index (weight(kg)/(height(m)2
)) for controls, bulimic cases, and anorectic cases was 22.3 (SD 1.90), 24.4 (1.77), and 15.1 (0.76) respectively. All scores on the eating disorder inventory and the BITE scale were consistent with published data for women with or without eating disorders.2,3
All participants found the questions and the term SCOFF acceptable. Setting the threshold at two or more positive answers to all five questions provided 100% sensitivity for anorexia and bulimia, separately and combined (all cases, 95% confidence interval 96.9% to 100%; bulimic cases, 92.6% to 100%; anorectic cases, 94.7% to 100%), with specificity of 87.5% (79.2% to 93.4%) for controls (table).