Papers of particular interest, published within the annual period of review, have been highlighted as:
• of special interest
•• of outstanding interest
1. Yariv A. In: Optical Electronics. edn 4. Sedra AS, editor. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing; 1991.
2. Denk W, Svoboda K. Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick. Neuron. 1997;18:351–357. [PubMed] 3. Oheim M, Beaurepaire E, Chaigneau E, Mertz J, Charpak S. Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth. J Neurosci Methods. 2001;111:29–37. [PubMed] 4.
Jung JC, Schnitzer MJ Multiphoton endoscopy. Opt Lett. 2003;28:902–904. [PubMed]
This study introduced 2PFME using compound GRIN micro-lenses. The authors present triplet combinations of GRIN micro-lenses that are 350–1000 µm in diameter. Micron-scale resolution and the ability to visualize neurons and dendrites using 2PFME are demonstrated.
Jung JC, Mehta AD, Aksay E, Stepnoski R, Schnitzer MJ In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92 published online, DOI: 1001152/jn.00234.2004. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
The authors introduce one-photon epi-fluorescence microendoscopy employing doublet GRIN micro-lenses that are 350–1000 µm in diameter and provide micron-scale resolution. Using this technique, the authors obtain video-rate movies of individual red blood cells flowing through capillaries within hippocampal and thalamic areas of live rodents. Clusters of individual pyramidal neurons that express yellow fluorescent protein are visualized using one-photon microendoscopy in the CA1 hippocampal area of live transgenic mice. Along with the study of Levene et al. [6••], this paper also describes the initial in vivo usages of two-photon microendoscopy. Doublet GRIN microendoscopes positioned dorsal to the CA1 alveus are used to visualize individual fluorescent hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dendrites up to ~270 µm from the tip of the endoscope probe in live mice.
Levene MJ, Dombeck DA, Kasischke KA, Molloy RP, Webb WW In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:1908–1912. [PubMed]
Along with the work of Jung et al. [5••], this study describes the initial in vivo usages of two-photon microendoscopy. GRIN microendoscopes of the 350-µm-diameter triplet design [4•] are used to perform fast line-scan tracking of red blood cell flow in deep neocortical vessels of anesthetized mice. Fluorescent layer V neocortical pyramidal neurons and their dendrites, as well as CA1 hippocampal neuropil, are visualized in live transgenic mice.
7. Perchant A, Le Goualher G, Genet M, Viellerobe B, Berier F. An integrated fibered confocal microscopy system for in vivo and in situ fluorescence imaging – Applications to endoscopy in small animal imaging. 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging. 2004
8. Bird D, Gu M. Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1552–1554. [PubMed] 9. Tatagiba M, Matthies C, Samii M. Microendoscopy of the internal auditory canal in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Neurosurgery. 1996;38:737–740. [PubMed] 10. Jacobi PC, Dietlein TS, Krieglstein GK. Microendoscopic trabecular surgery in glaucoma management. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:538–544. [PubMed] 11. Rouse AR, Gmitro AF. Multispectral imaging with a confocal microendoscope. Opt Lett. 2000;25:1708–1710. [PubMed] 12. Sabharwal YS, Rouse AR, Donaldson L, Hopkins MF, Gmitro AF. Slit-scanning confocal microendoscope for high-resolution in vivo imaging. Appl Opt. 1999;38:7133–7144. [PubMed]
13. Knittel J, Schnieder L, Buess G, Messerschmidt B, Possner T. Endoscope-compatible confocal microscope using a gradient index-lens system. Opt Commun. 2001;188:267–273.
14. Fisher JA, Civillico EF, Contreras D, Yodh AG. In vivo fluorescence microscopy of neuronal activity in three dimensions by use of voltage-sensitive dyes. Opt Lett. 2004;29:71–73. [PubMed] 15. Reed WA, Yan MF, Schnitzer MJ. Gradient-index fiber-optic microprobes for minimally invasive in vivo low-coherence interferometry. Opt Lett. 2002;27:1794–1796. [PubMed] 16.
Theer P, Hasan MT, Denk W Two-photon imaging to a depth of 1000 microns in living brains by use of a Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1022–1024. [PubMed]
The authors describe a means of visualizing individual fluorescent cells within 800–1000 µm of the brain surface without using fiber optic probes. A regenerative amplifier light source operating at a 200 kHz repetition rate is shown to extend the imaging depth of two-photon microscopy to nearly the entire neocortex of 3-week-old mice.
17. Beaurepaire E, Oheim M, Mertz J. Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media. Opt Commun. 2001;188:25–29.
Mizrahi A, Crowley JC, Shtoyerman E, Katz LC High-resolution in vivo imaging of hippocampal dendrites and spines. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3147–3151. [PubMed]
The authors describe a means of visualizing individual fluorescent cells, dendrites, and spines within the dorsal-most layer of CA1 hippocampus in live mice using a surgical approach to aspirate overlying neocortical matter. A water immersion microscope objective positioned at the aspiration site enables in vivo hippocampal imaging by two-photon microscopy, without the use of fiber optic probes.
19. Kleinfeld D, Mitra PP, Helmchen F, Denk W. Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:15741–15746. [PubMed] 20. Devor A, Dunn AK, Andermann ML, Ulbert I, Boas DA, Dale AM. Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex. Neuron. 2003;39:353–359. [PubMed] 21. Shtoyerman E, Arieli A, Slovin H, Vanzetta I, Grinvald A. Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in V1 of behaving monkeys. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8111–8121. [PubMed] 22. Malonek D, Grinvald A. Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping. Science. 1996;272:551–554. [PubMed] 23. Vanzetta I, Grinvald A. Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging. Science. 1999;286:1555–1558. [PubMed] 24. Mayevsky A, Chance B. Intracellular oxidation-reduction state measured in situ by a multichannel fiber-optic surface fluorometer. Science. 1982;217:537–540. [PubMed] 25. Kasischke KA, Vishwasrao HD, Fisher PJ, Zipfel WR, Webb WW. Neural activity triggers neuronal oxidative metabolism followed by astrocytic glycolysis. Science. 2004;305:99–103. [PubMed] 26. Reinert KC, Dunbar RL, Gao W, Chen G, Ebner TJ. Flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging of neuronal activation in the cerebellar cortex in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:199–211. [PubMed] 27. Murakami H, Kamatani D, Hishida R, Takao T, Kudoh M, Kawaguchi T, Tanaka R, Shibuki K. Short-term plasticity visualized with flavoprotein autofluorescence in the somatosensory cortex of anaesthetized rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:1352–1360. [PubMed] 28. Malonek D, Dirnagl U, Lindauer U, Yamada K, Kanno I, Grinvald A. Vascular imprints of neuronal activity: relationships between the dynamics of cortical blood flow, oxygenation, and volume changes following sensory stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:14826–14831. [PubMed] 29. Anderson RE, Meyer FB. In vivo fluorescent imaging of NADH redox state in brain. Methods Enzymol. 2002;352:482–494. [PubMed] 30. Villringer A, Chance B. Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function. Trends Neurosci. 1997;20:435–442. [PubMed]
31. Grinvald A, Shmuel A, Vanzetta I, Shtoyerman E, Shoham D, Arieli A. Intrinsic signal imaging in the neocortex. In: Yuste R, Lanni F, Konnerth A, editors. Imaging Neurons. Vol. 45. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2000. pp. 1–45. 17.
32. Cohen LB. Changes in neuron structure during action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Physiol Rev. 1973;53:373–418. [PubMed] 33. Stepnoski RA, LaPorta A, Raccuia-Behling F, Blonder GE, Slusher RE, Kleinfeld D. Noninvasive detection of changes in membrane potential in cultured neurons by light scattering. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991;88:9382–9386. [PubMed] 34. Boas DA, Gaudette T, Strangman G, Cheng X, Marota JJ, Mandeville JB. The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics. Neuroimage. 2001;13:76–90. [PubMed] 35. Baird AA, Kagan J, Gaudette T, Walz KA, Hershlag N, Boas DA. Frontal lobe activation during object permanence: data from near-infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage. 2002;16:1120–1125. [PubMed] 36. Strangman G, Culver JP, Thompson JH, Boas DA. A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation. Neuroimage. 2002;17:719–731. [PubMed] 37. Hintz SR, Benaron DA, Siegel AM, Zourabian A, Stevenson DK, Boas DA. Bedside functional imaging of the premature infant brain during passive motor activation. J Perinat Med. 2001;29:335–343. [PubMed] 38. Boas DA, Franceschini MA. Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy. Neuroimage. 2004 in press. [PubMed] 39. Maki A, Yamashita Y, Ito Y, Watanabe E, Mayanagi Y, Koizumi H. Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography. Med Phys. 1995;22:1997–2005. [PubMed] 40. Bluestone AY, Abdulaev G, Schmitz CH, Barbour RL, Hielscher AH. Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head. Opt Express. 2001;9:272–286. [PubMed] 41. Siegel AM, Culver JP, Mandeville JB, Boas DA. Temporal comparison of functional brain imaging with diffuse optical tomography and fMRI during rat forepaw stimulation. Phys Med Biol. 2003;48:1391–1403. [PubMed]
Huppert TJ, Hoge RD, Franceschini MA, Boas DA A temporal comparison of simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) hemodynamic response functions. Neuroimage. 2004 in press.
This study compares the time course of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals acquired by fMRI in human subjects with the changes in total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin blood content as assessed simultaneously by NIRS during a finger tapping task. Of the three hemodynamic variables studied optically, the evolution of deoxy-hemoglobin content most closely follows the BOLD time course.
43. Wolf M, Wolf U, Choi JH, Gupta R, Safonova LP, Paunescu LA, Michalos A, Gratton E. Functional frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy detects fast neuronal signal in the motor cortex. Neuroimage. 2002;17:1868–1875. [PubMed] 44. Gratton G, Fabiani M. Shedding light on brain function: the event-related optical signal. Trends Cogn Sci. 2001;5:357–363. [PubMed] 45. Franceschini MA, Boas DA. Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging. Neuroimage. 2004;21:372–386. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 46. Tsujimoto S, Yamamoto T, Kawaguchi H, Koizumi H, Sawaguchi T. Prefrontal cortical activation associated with working memory in adults and preschool children: an event-related optical topography study. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:703–712. [PubMed] 47. Taga G, Asakawa K, Maki A, Konishi Y, Koizumi H. Brain imaging in awake infants by near-infrared optical topography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:10722–10727. [PubMed] 48.
Culver JP, Siegel AM, Stott JJ, Boas DA Volumetric diffuse optical tomography of brain activity. Opt Lett. 2003;28:2061–2063. [PubMed]
The authors describe three-dimensional imaging of brain activation using DOT in an anesthetized rat preparation during electrical stimulation to the forepaw. The millimeter-scale resolution achieved is superior to the separation between optical fibers within an assembly mounted on the scalp. Regions of brain activation as identified by DOT are similar to those identified by fMRI during forepaw stimulation.
49. Culver JP, Durduran T, Furuya D, Cheung C, Greenberg JH, Yodh AG. Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003;23:911–924. [PubMed] 50. Boas DA, Chen K, Grebert CD, Franceschini MA. Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans. Opt Lett. 2004;29:1506–1508. [PubMed] 51. Xu H, Dehghani H, Pogue BW, Springett R, Paulsen KD, Dunn JF. Near-infrared imaging in the small animal brain: optimization of fiber positions. J Biomed Opt. 2003;8:102–110. [PubMed] 52. Pogue BW, Paulsen KD. High-resolution near-infrared tomographic imaging simulations of the rat cranium by use of a priori magnetic resonance imaging structural information. Opt Lett. 1998;23:1716–1718. [PubMed] 53. Barnett AH, Culver JP, Sorensen AG, Dale AM, Boas DA. Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging. Appl Opt. 2003;42:3095–3108. [PubMed] 54. Schulz RB, Ripoll J, Ntziachristos V. Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2004;23:492–500. [PubMed] 55. Schulz RB, Ripoll J, Ntziachristos V. Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1701–1703. [PubMed] 56. Corlu A, Durduran T, Choe R, Schweiger M, Hillman EM, Arridge SR, Yodh AG. Uniqueness and wavelength optimization in continuous-wave multispectral diffuse optical tomography. Opt Lett. 2003;28:2339–2341. [PubMed] 57. Li A, Zhang Q, Culver JP, Miller EL, Boas DA. Reconstructing chromosphere concentration images directly by continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography. Opt Lett. 2004;29:256–258. [PubMed] 58. Prince S, Kolehmainen V, Kaipo JP, Franceschini MA, Boas DA, Arridge SR. Time-series estimation of biological factors in optical diffusion tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2003;48:1491–1504. [PubMed]
59. Thrush E, Levi O, Ha W, Carey G, Cook LJ, Deich J, Smith SJ, Moerner WE, Harris JS., Jr Integrated semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and PIN photodetectors for biomedical fluorescence sensing. IEEE J Quantum Electron. 2004;40:491–498.
60. Huang D, Swanson EA, Lin CP, Schuman JS, Stinson WG, Chang W, Hee MR, Flotte T, Gregory K, Puliafito CA, et al. Optical coherence tomography. Science. 1991;254:1178–1181. [PubMed] 61. Fujimoto JG. Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1361–1367. [PubMed] 62. Drexler W, Morgner U, Ghanta RK, Kärtner FX, Schuman JS, Fujimoto JG. Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography. Nat Med. 2001;7:502–507. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 63.
Drexler W Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2004;9:47–74. [PubMed]
The author describes in detail the use of novel broad bandwidth optical sources for ultrahigh-resolution OCT, with particular emphasis on in vivo imaging of the retina with micron-scale axial resolution in human subjects.
64. Unterhuber A, Povazay B, Bizheva K, Hermann B, Sattmann H, Stingl A, Le T, Seefeld M, Menzel R, Preusser M, et al. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:1235–1246. [PubMed] 65. Tearney GJ, Brezinski ME, Bouma BE, Boppart SA, Pitris C, Southern JF, Fujimoto JG. In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography. Science. 1997;276:2037–2039. [PubMed] 66. Li X, Chudoba C, Ko T, Pitris C, Fujimoto JG. Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2000;25:1520–1522. [PubMed] 67. Herz PR, Chen Y, Aguirre AD, Schneider K, Hsiung P, Fujimoto JG, Madden K, Schmitt J, Goodnow J, Petersen C. Micro-motor endoscope catheter for in vivo ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2004 in press. [PubMed] 68. Tran PH, Mukai DS, Brenner M, Chen Z. In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe. Opt Lett. 2004;29:1236–1238. [PubMed] 69. Boppart SA, Bouma BE, Pitris C, Southern JF, Brezinski ME, Fujimoto JG. In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging. Nat Med. 1998;4:861–865. [PubMed] 70. Drexler W, Morgner U, Krtner FX, Pitris C, Boppart SA, Li XD, Ippen EP, Fujimoto JG. In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 1999;24:1221–1223. [PubMed] 71. Morgner U, Drexler W, Krtner FX, Li XD, Pitris C, Ippen EP, Fujimoto JG. Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2000;25:111–113. [PubMed] 72.
de Boer JF, Cense B, Park BH, Pierce MC, Tearney GJ, Bouma BE Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2003;28:2067–2069. [PubMed]
This study and that by Leitgeb et al. [74•] compare the sensitivity of OCT using spectral-domain detection to that using time-domain detection. Spectral-domain OCT is shown to be up to several hundred times more sensitive.
73. Fercher AF, Hitzenberger CK, Kamp G, El-Zaiat SY. Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry. Opt Commun. 1995;117:43–48.
Leitgeb R, Hitzenberger CK, Fercher AF Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2003;11:889–894. [PubMed]
This study and that by de Boer et al. [72•] compare the sensitivity of OCT using fourier-domain detection versus time-domain detection. Fourier-domain OCT is shown to be significantly more sensitive.
75. Nassif N, Cense B, Park BH, Yun SH, Chen TC, Bouma BE, Tearney GJ, de Boer JF. In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2004;29:480–482. [PubMed] 76. Wojtkowski M, Bajraszewski T, Targowski P, Kowalczyk A. Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1745–1747. [PubMed] 77. Nassif N, Cense B, Park BH, Pierce MC, Yun SH, Bouma BE, Tearney GJ, Chen TC, de Boer JF. In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve. Opt Express. 2004;12:367–376. [PubMed] 78.
White BR, Pierce MC, Nassif N, Cense B, Park BH, Tearney GJ, Bouma BE, Chen TC, de Boer JF In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography. Opt Express. 2003;11:3490–3497. [PubMed]
The authors demonstrate video-rate imaging of retinal blood flow using spectral-domain OCT. Analysis of the optical Doppler shifts that arise from blood movement allow arterial, venous, and even capillary flow to be identified. The especially pulsatile character of retinal arterial flow can be seen within video-rate movies.
79. Leitgeb RA, Schmetterer L, Drexler W, Fercher AF, Zawadzki RJ, Bajraszewski T. Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2003;11:3116–3121. [PubMed] 80. Cense B, Nassif N, Chen TC, Pierce MC, Yun SH, Park BH, Bouma BE, Tearney GJ, de Boer JF. Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2004;12:2435–2447. [PubMed] 81. Wojtkowski M, Srinivasan VJ, Ko TH, Fujimoto JG, Kowalczyk A, Duker JS. Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation. Opt Express. 2004;12:2404–2422. [PubMed] 82. Leitgeb RA, Drexler W, Unterhuber A, Hermann B, Bajraszewski T, Le T, Stingl A, Fercher AF. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2004;12:2156–2165. [PubMed] 83. Yun SH, Tearney GJ, de Boer JF, Iftimia N, Bouma BE. High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging. Opt Express. 2003;11:2953–2963. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 84. Choma MA, Sarunic MV, Yang C, Izatt JA. Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2003;11:2183–2189. [PubMed] 85.
Maheswari RU, Takaoka H, Kadono H, Homma R, Tanifuji M Novel functional imaging technique from brain surface with optical coherence tomography enabling visualization of depth resolved functional structure in vivo. J Neurosci Methods. 2003;124:83–92. [PubMed]
The authors describe the first usage of in vivo fOCT for detecting slow intrinsic optical signals indicative of brain activation. Studies of visual cortex in anesthetized cats revealed sensory-evoked intrinsic signals that varied with cortical depth.
86. Bizheva K, Unterhuber A, Hermann B, Povazay B, Sattmann H, Drexler W, Stingl A, Le T, Mei M, Holzwarth R, et al. Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2004;9:719–724. [PubMed] 87. Iftimia N, Bouma BE, Tearney GJ. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding. J Biomed Opt. 2003;8:260–263. [PubMed] 88. Boppart SA, Brezinski ME, Pitris C, Fujimoto JG. Optical coherence tomography for neurosurgical imaging of human intracortical melanoma. Neurosurgery. 1998;43:834–841. [PubMed] 89. Lazebnik M, Marks DL, Potgieter K, Gillette R, Boppart SA. Functional optical coherence tomography for detecting neural activity through scattering changes. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1218–1220. [PubMed] 90.
Akkin T, Dave DP, Milner TE, Rylander HG, III Detection of neural activity using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence relfectometry. Opt Express. 2004;12:2377–2386. [PubMed]
The authors use a differential phase-sensitive version of LCI to detect fast axonal movements of <1 nm accompanying electrically stimulated action potentials in an in vitro preparation of crayfish leg nerve bundles. To reveal these fine displacements, the authors averaged over hundreds of stimulation trials. The displacements appear to be nearly simultaneous with action potential occurrence to within ~1 ms.
91. Kholodnykh AI, Petrova IY, Larin KV, Motamedi M, Esenaliev RO. Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography. Appl Opt. 2003;42:3027–3037. [PubMed] 92. Pircher M, Gotzinger E, Leitgeb R, Fercher AF, Hitzenberger CK. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding. J Biomed Opt. 2003;8:565–569. [PubMed] 93. Lee TM, Oldenburg AL, Sitafalwalla S, Marks DL, Luo W, Toublan FJ, Suslick KS, Boppart SA. Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2003;28:1546–1548. [PubMed] 94.
Rao KD, Choma MA, Yazdanfar S, Rollins AM, Izatt JA Molecular contrast in optical coherence tomography by use of a pump-probe technique. Opt Lett. 2003;28:340–342. [PubMed]
This study and those by Yang et al. and Xu et al. [95•,96•] introduce the use of molecular imaging contrast agents for OCT.
Yang C, Choma MA, Lamb LE, Simon JD, Izatt JA Protein-based molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with phytochrome as the contrast agent. Opt Lett. 2004;29:1396–1398. [PubMed]
This study and those by Rao et al. and Xu et al. [94•,96•] introduce the use of molecular imaging contrast agents for OCT.
Xu C, Ye J, Marks DL, Boppart SA Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2004;29:1647–1649. [PubMed]
This study and those by Rao et al. and Yang et al. [94•,95•] introduce the use of molecular imaging contrast agents for OCT.
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113. Gobel W, Nimmerjahn A, Helmchen F. Distortion-free delivery of nanjoule femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Opt Lett. 2004;29:1285–1287. [PubMed]
114. Nimmerjahn A, Denk W, Helmchen F. Two-photon fiberscope imaging of cellular networks in the neocortex in vivo; Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting; 2003. Program No. 218.16.
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118. Piyawattanametha W, Fan L, Hsu S, Fujino M, Wu MC, Herz PR, Aguirre AD, Chen Y, Fujimoto JG. Two-dimensional endoscopic MEMS scanner for high-resolution optical coherence tomography; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics; 2004. Program No. CWS 2.
119. Xie T, Xie H, Fedder GK, Pan Y. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers. Appl Opt. 2003;42:6422–6426. [PubMed] 120. Anger EM, Unterhuber A, Hermann B, Sattmann H, Schubert C, Morgan JE, Cowey A, Ahnelt PK, Drexler W. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:1117–1125. [PubMed]