1. Sebens KP. Biodiversity of coral-reefs - what are we losing and why. American Zoologist. 1994;34:115–133.
2. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, et al. Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science. 2003;301:929–933. [PubMed] 3. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nystrom M. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature. 2004;429:827–833. [PubMed]
4. Halpern BS. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications. 2003;13:S117–S137.
5. Mumby PJ, Dahlgren CP, Harborne AR, Kappel CV, Micheli F, et al. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs. Science. 2006;311:98–101. [PubMed] 6. Pandolfi JM, Bradbury RH, Sala E, Hughes TP, Bjorndal KA, et al. Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science. 2003;301:955–958. [PubMed] 7. Jones GP, McCormick MI, Srinivasan M, Eagle JV. Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2004;101:8251–8253. [PubMed]
8. Cinner JE, McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ, Pratchett MS, Wilson SK, et al. Gear-based fisheries management as a potential adaptive response to climate change and coral mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2009;46:724–732.
9. Roberts CM, Bohnsack JA, Gell F, Hawkins JP, Goodridge R. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science. 2001;294:1920–1923. [PubMed] 10. Knowlton N, Jackson JBC. Shifting baselines, local impacts, and global change on coral reefs. PloS Biology. 2008;6:215–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Sweatman H. No-take reserves protect coral reefs from predatory starfish. Current Biology. 2008;18:R598–R599. [PubMed] 12. Mumby PJ, Harborne AR, Williams J, Kappel CV, Brumbaugh DR, et al. Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007;104:8362–8367. [PubMed] 13. Hughes TP, Rodrigues MJ, Bellwood DR, Ceccarelli D, Hoegh-Guldberg O, et al. Phase shifts, herbivory, and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. Current Biology. 2007;17:360–365. [PubMed]
14. Aronson RB, Precht WF. Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs. 2006;25:441–450.
15. Graham NAJ, McClanahan TR, MacNeil MA, Wilson SK, Polunin NVC, et al. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3039. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 16. McClanahan TR. Response of the coral reef benthos and herbivory to fishery closure management and the 1998 ENSO disturbance. Oecologia. 2008;155:169–177. [PubMed]
17. Kramer KL, Heck KL. Top-down trophic shifts in Florida Keys patch reef marine protected areas. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 2007;349:111–123.
18. Bruno JF, Selig ER, Casey KS, Page CA, Willis BL, et al. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PloS Biology. 2007;5:1220–1227. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Willis TJ, Millar RB, Babcock RC, Tolimieri N. Burdens of evidence and the benefits of marine reserves: putting Descartes before des horse? Environmental Conservation. 2003;30:97–103.
20. Osenberg CW, Schmitt RJ, Holbrook SJ, Abu-Saba KE, Flegal AR. Detection of environmental impacts: natural variability, effect size, and power analysis. Ecological Applications. 1994;4:16–30.
21. Toms JD, Lesperance ML. Piecewise regression: a tool for identifying ecological thresholds. Ecology. 2003;84:2034–2041.
22. Lunn DJ, Thomas A, Best N, Spiegelhalter D. WinBUGS - a Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Statistics and Computing. 2000;10:325–337.
23. McMahon SM, Diez JM. Scales of association: hierarchical linear models and the measurement of ecological systems. Ecology Letters. 2007;10:437–452. [PubMed] 24. Claudet J, Osenberg CW, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Domenici P, Garcia-Charton JA, et al. Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecology Letters. 2008;11:481–489. [PubMed] 25. Edgar GJ, Barrett NS, Stuart-Smith RD. Exploited reefs protected from fishing transform over decades into conservation features otherwise absent from seascapes. Ecological Applications. 2009;19:1967–1974. [PubMed] 26. McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ, Calnan JM, MacNeil MA. Toward pristine biomass: reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya. Ecological Applications. 2007;17:1055–1067. [PubMed]
27. Abesamis RA, Russ GR. Density-dependent spillover from a marine reserve: long-term evidence. Ecological Applications. 2005;15:1798–1812.
28. Maliao RJ, Webb EL, Jensen KR. A survey of stock of the donkey's ear abalone, Haliotis asinina L. in the Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines: evaluating the effectiveness of marine protected area enforcement. Fisheries Research. 2004;66:343–353.
29. Halford A, Cheal AJ, Ryan D, Williams DM. Resilience to large-scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology. 2004;85:1892–1905.
30. Aronson RB, MacIntyre IG, Wapnick CM, O'Neill MW. Phase shifts, alternative states, and the unprecedented convergence of two reef systems. Ecology. 2004;85:1876–1891.
31. Berkelmans R, De'ath G, Kininmonth S, Skirving WJ. A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs. 2004;23:74–83.
32. Jameson SC, Tupper MH, Ridley JM. The three screen doors: can marine “protected” areas be effective? Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2002;44:1177–1183. [PubMed]
33. Jones PJS. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 2001;11:197–216.
34. Edgar GJ, Bustamante RH, Farina JM, Calvopina M, Martinez C, et al. Bias in evaluating the effects of marine protected areas: the importance of baseline data for the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Environmental Conservation. 2004;31:212–218.
35. Airame S, Dugan JE, Lafferty KD, Leslie H, McArdle DA, et al. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications. 2003;13:S170–S184.
36. Roberts CM. Selecting marine reserve locations: Optimality versus opportunism. Bulletin of Marine Science. 2000;66:581–592.
37. Keller BD, Causey BD. Linkages between the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Initiative. Ocean & Coastal Management. 2005;48:869–900.
38. Ault JS, Bohnsack JA, Smith SG, Luo JG. Towards sustainable multispecies fisheries in the Florida, USA, coral reef ecosystem. Bulletin of Marine Science. 2005;76:595–622.
39. Fernandes L, Day J, Lewis A, Slegers S, Kerrigan B, et al. Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conservation Biology. 2005;19:1733–1744.
40. West JM, Salm RV. Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conservation Biology. 2003;17:956–967.
41. McLeod E, Salm R, Green A, Almany J. Designing marine protected area networks to address the impacts of climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2009;7:362–370.
42. Bruno JF, Selig ER. Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e711. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
43. Edmunds PJ, Bruno JF. The importance of sampling scale in ecology: kilometer-wide variation in coral reef communities. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 1996;143:165–171.
44. McClanahan TR. Is there a future for coral reef parks in poor tropical countries? Coral Reefs. 1999;18:321–325.
45. Mora C, Andrefouet S, Costello MJ, Kranenburg C, Rollo A, et al. Coral reefs and the global network of marine protected areas. Science. 2006;312:1750–1751. [PubMed] 46. Graham NAJ, Wilson SK, Jennings S, Polunin NVC, Robinson J, et al. Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology. 2007;21:1291–1300. [PubMed] 47. Alvarez-Filip L, Dulvy NK, Gill JA, Cote IM, Watkinson AR. Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 2009;276:3019–3025. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
48. Aronson RB, Precht WF. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia. 2001;460:25–38.
49. McClanahan TR, McField M, Huitric M, Bergman K, Sala E, et al. Responses of algae, corals and fish to the reduction of macroalgae in fished and unfished patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize. Coral Reefs. 2001;19:367–379.
50. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, et al. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science. 2007;318:1737–1742. [PubMed]