Copyright and/or publishing rights held by the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
c) Warm tap water does not irritate intestinal tissue and effectively hydrates desiccated feces.
d) Weight gain in the face of rehydration indicates overhydration. This is the earliest clinical sign. By the time other signs develop, life-threatening overhydration may be occurring.
c) This cat should be retested after at least 1 month to determine if the infection is active.
a) Thoracic radiographs are useful to assess the degree of disease. Serum chemistry assays are useful to assess liver and kidney function before starting treatment.
a) The first clinical sign is fever. Coughing and sometimes purulent nasal discharge, diarrhea, and joint effusion occur much later.
e) Hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyper-β-globulinemia occur with many causes of chronic inflammation. Demonstration of strongyle ova in feces confirms parasitism but does not necessarily indicate that disease is related to parasitism.
d) CSF can usually be obtained by spinal puncture at the lumbosacral space.
a) In resting adult cattle, a heart rate above 90 beats/min is considered tachycardia.
d) The paired anal sacs open as described and are positioned between the internal and external sphincter muscles. They are present in both males and females and are not influenced by estrogen.
b)Listeria monocytogenes grows in silage when the pH is above 5.5.
Articles from The Canadian Veterinary Journal are provided here courtesy of Canadian Veterinary Medical Association