Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. 1993 September; 61(9): 3994–3997.
PMCID: PMC281106

Safety, immunogenicity, and excretion pattern of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in Peruvian adults of high and low socioeconomic levels.


Groups of 122 Peruvian adults of low socioeconomic level (SEL) and 125 of high SEL received a randomly allocated 5 x 10(9)- or 5 x 10(8)-CFU dose of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine or a placebo. The vaccine was well tolerated. Vibriocidal seroconversions occurred in 78% of high-SEL and 72% of low-SEL subjects who ingested the high dose and in 78 and 49%, respectively, of those who received the low dose.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (789K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Benenson AS, Saad A, Mosley WH. Serological studies in cholera. 2. The vibriocidal antibody response of cholera patients determined by a microtechnique. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38(2):277–285. [PubMed]
  • Clemens JD, van Loon F, Sack DA, Chakraborty J, Rao MR, Ahmed F, Harris JR, Khan MR, Yunus M, Huda S, et al. Field trial of oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh: serum vibriocidal and antitoxic antibodies as markers of the risk of cholera. J Infect Dis. 1991 Jun;163(6):1235–1242. [PubMed]
  • Cryz SJ, Jr, Levine MM, Losonsky G, Kaper JB, Althaus B. Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in Swiss adults. Infect Immun. 1992 Sep;60(9):3916–3917. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cryz SJ, Jr, Levine MM, Kaper JB, Fürer E, Althaus B. Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the live oral cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR in Swiss adults. Vaccine. 1990 Dec;8(6):577–580. [PubMed]
  • Glass RI, Svennerholm AM, Khan MR, Huda S, Huq MI, Holmgren J. Seroepidemiological studies of El Tor cholera in Bangladesh: association of serum antibody levels with protection. J Infect Dis. 1985 Feb;151(2):236–242. [PubMed]
  • Kaper JB, Levine MM. Recombinant attenuated Vibrio cholerae strains used as live oral vaccines. Res Microbiol. 1990 Sep-Oct;141(7-8):901–906. [PubMed]
  • Kotloff KL, Wasserman SS, O'Donnell S, Losonsky GA, Cryz SJ, Levine MM. Safety and immunogenicity in North Americans of a single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct;60(10):4430–4432. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB. Live oral vaccines against cholera: an update. Vaccine. 1993;11(2):207–212. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Kaper JB, Herrington D, Ketley J, Losonsky G, Tacket CO, Tall B, Cryz S. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of recombinant live oral cholera vaccines, CVD 103 and CVD 103-HgR. Lancet. 1988 Aug 27;2(8609):467–470. [PubMed]
  • Levine MM, Young CR, Black RE, Takeda Y, Finkelstein RA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure antibodies to purified heat-labile enterotoxins from human and porcine strains of Escherichia coli and to cholera toxin: application in serodiagnosis and seroepidemiology. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Feb;21(2):174–179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Migasena S, Pitisuttitham P, Prayurahong B, Suntharasamai P, Supanaranond W, Desakorn V, Vongsthongsri U, Tall B, Ketley J, Losonsky G, et al. Preliminary assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR in healthy Thai adults. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov;57(11):3261–3264. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mosley WH, Ahmad S, Benenson AS, Ahmed A. The relationship of vibriocidal antibody titre to susceptibility to cholera in family contacts of cholera patients. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38(5):777–785. [PubMed]
  • Mosley WH, Benenson AS, Barui R. A serological survey for cholear antibodies in rural east Pakistan. 1. The distribution of antibody in the control population of a cholera-vaccine field-trial area and the relation of antibody titre to the pattern of endemic cholera. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38(3):327–334. [PubMed]
  • Su-Arehawaratana P, Singharaj P, Taylor DN, Hoge C, Trofa A, Kuvanont K, Migasena S, Pitisuttitham P, Lim YL, Losonsky G, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of different immunization regimens of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in soldiers and civilians in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165(6):1042–1048. [PubMed]
  • Suharyono, Simanjuntak C, Witham N, Punjabi N, Heppner DG, Losonsky G, Totosudirjo H, Rifai AR, Clemens J, Lim YL, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5-9-year-old Indonesian children. Lancet. 1992 Sep 19;340(8821):689–694. [PubMed]
  • Swerdlow DL, Mintz ED, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Greene KD, Saldana W, Seminario L, Tauxe RV, et al. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet. 1992 Jul 4;340(8810):28–33. [PubMed]
  • Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Nataro JP, Cryz SJ, Edelman R, Kaper JB, Levine MM. Onset and duration of protective immunity in challenged volunteers after vaccination with live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct;166(4):837–841. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)