1. Akinbami L. The State of Childhood Asthma, United States, 1980–2005: Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics [No. 381] Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2006.
2. Clark NM, Feldman CH, Evans D, Levision MJ, Mellins RB. The impact of health education on frequency and cost of health care use by low income children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986;78(1 pt 1):108–115. [PubMed] 3. Fireman P, Friday GA, Gira C, Vierthaler WA, Michaels L. Teaching self-management skills to asthmatic children and their parents in an ambulatory care setting. Pediatrics. 1981;68(3):341–348. [PubMed] 4. Lewis CE, Lewis M, De la Sota A, Kaplan M. A randomized trial of A.C.T. for Kids. Pediatrics. 1984;74(4):478–486. [PubMed] 5. Wilson SR, Latini D, Starr NJ, et al. Education of parents of infants and very young children with asthma: a developmental evaluation of the Wee Wheezers program. J Asthma. 1996;33(4):239–254. [PubMed] 6. Wolf FM, Guevara JP, Grum CM, Clark NM, Cates CJ. Educational interventions for asthma in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD000326. [PubMed] 7. Haby MM, Waters E, Robertson CF, Gibson PG, Ducharme FM. Interventions for educating children who have attended the emergency room for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD001290. [PubMed] 8. Ronchetti R, Indinnimeo L, Bonci E, et al. Asthma self-management programmes in a population of Italian children: a multicentric study. Italian Study Group on Asthma Self-Management Programmes. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(6):1248–1253. [PubMed] 9. Lucas DO, Zimmer LO, Paul JE, et al. Two-year results from the asthma self-management program: long-term impact on health care services, costs, functional status, and productivity. J Asthma. 2001;38(4):321–330. [PubMed] 10. de Oliveira MA, Feresin SM, Bruno VF, de Bittencourt AR, Fernandes AL. Evaluation of an educational programme for socially deprived asthma patients. Eur Respir J. 1999;14(4):908–914. [PubMed] 11. Wilson-Pessano SR, McNabb WL. The role of patient education in the management of childhood asthma. Prev Med. 1985;14(6):670–687. [PubMed] 12. McNabb WL, Wilson-Pessano SR, Hughes GW, Scamagas P. Self-management education of children with asthma: AIR WISE. Am J Public Health. 1985;75 (10):1219–1220. [PubMed]
13. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma No. 07-4051. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2007.
14. Evans R, III, Gergen PJ, Mitchell H, et al. A randomized clinical trial to reduce asthma morbidity among inner-city children: results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study. J Pediatr. 1999;135(3):332–338. [PubMed] 15. Janson SL, Fahy JV, Covington JK, Paul SM, Gold WM, Boushey HA. Effects of individual self-management education on clinical, biological, and adherence outcomes in asthma. Am J Med. 2003;115(8):620–626. [PubMed] 16. Levy ML, Robb M, Allen J, Doherty C, Bland JM, Winter RJ. A randomized controlled evaluation of specialist nurse education following accident and emergency department attendance for acute asthma. Respir Med. 2000;94(9):900–908. [PubMed] 17. Lahdensuo A, Haahtela T, Herrala J, et al. Randomised comparison of guided self management and traditional treatment of asthma over one year. BMJ. 1996;312(7033):748–752. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 18. Greineder DK, Loane KC, Parks P. A randomized controlled trial of a pediatric asthma outreach program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103(3 pt 1):436–440. [PubMed] 19. Kelly CS, Morrow AL, Shults J, Nakas N, Strope GL, Adelman RD. Outcomes evaluation of a comprehensive intervention program for asthmatic children enrolled in Medicaid. Pediatrics. 2000;105(5):1029–1035. [PubMed] 20. Wood P, Tumiel-Berhalter L, Owen S, Taylor K, Kattan M. Implementation of an asthma intervention in the inner city. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97(1 suppl 1):S20–S24. [PubMed] 21. Muntner P, Sudre P, Uldry C, et al. Predictors of participation and attendance in a new asthma patient self-management education program. Chest. 2001;120 (3):778–784. [PubMed] 22. Yoon R, McKenzie DK, Miles DA, Bauman A. Characteristics of attenders and non-attenders at an asthma education programme. Thorax. 1991;46(12):886–890. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 23. Abdulwadud O, Abramson M, Forbes A, et al. Attendance at an asthma educational intervention: characteristics of participants and non-participants. Respir Med. 1997;91(9):524–529. [PubMed] 24. Lemaigre V, Van den Bergh O, Van Hasselt K, De Peuter S, Victoir A, Verleden G. Understanding participation in an asthma self-management program. Chest. 2005;128(5):3133–3139. [PubMed] 25. Krieger JW, Takaro TK, Song L, Weaver M. The Seattle-King County Healthy Homes project: a randomized, controlled trial of a community health worker intervention to decrease exposure to indoor asthma triggers. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(4):652–659. [PubMed] 26. Morgan WJ, Crain EF, Gruchalla RS, et al. Inner-City Asthma Study Group: results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(11):1068–1080. [PubMed] 27. Eggleston PA, Butz A, Rand C, et al. Home environmental intervention in inner-city asthma: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;95(6):518–524. [PubMed] 28. Bonner S, Zimmerman BJ, Evans D, Irigoyen M, Resnick D, Mellins RB. An individualized intervention to improve asthma management among urban Latino and African-American families. J Asthma. 2002;39(2):167–179. [PubMed] 29. Carter MC, Perzanowski MS, Raymond A, et al. Home intervention in the treatment of asthma among inner-city children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108 (5):732–737. [PubMed] 30. Brown JV, Bakeman R, Celano MP, Demi AS, Kobrynski L, Wilson SR. Home-based asthma education of young low-income children and their families. J Pediatr Psychol. 2002;27(8):667–688. [PubMed] 31. Klinnert MD, Liu AH, Pearson MR, et al. Outcome of a randomized multifaceted intervention with low-income families of wheezing infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(8):783–790. [PubMed] 32. Parker EA, Israel BA, Robins TG, et al. Evaluation of community action against asthma: a community health worker intervention to improve children’s asthma-related health by reducing household environmental triggers for asthma. Health Educ Behav. 2008;35(3):376–395. [PubMed] 33. Gold DR, Wright R. Population disparities in asthma. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:89–113. [PubMed] 34. Swider SM. Outcome effectiveness of community health workers: an integrative literature review. Public Health Nurs. 2002;19(1):11–20. [PubMed] 35. Butz AM, Malveaux FJ, Eggleston P, et al. Use of community health workers with inner-city children who have asthma. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1994;33(3):135–141. [PubMed] 36. Love MB, Gardner K, Legion V. Community health workers: who they are and what they do. Health Educ Behav. 1997;24(4):510–522. [PubMed] 37. Krieger JK, Takaro TK, Allen C, et al. The Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project: implementation of a comprehensive approach to improving indoor environmental quality for low-income children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(suppl 2):311–322. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 38. Friedman AR, Butterfoss FD, Krieger JW, et al. Allies community health workers: bridging the gap. Health Promot Pract. 2006;7(2 suppl):96S–107S. [PubMed] 39. Lewin SA, Dick J, Pond P, et al. Lay health workers in primary and community health care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD004015. [PubMed] 40. Perez M, Findley SE, Mejia M, Martinez J. The impact of community health worker training and programs in NYC. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2006;17(1 suppl):26–43. [PubMed]
41. Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz A, Parker E. Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
42. Minkler M, Wallerstein N. Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2003.
43. Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1977.
44. Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1986.
45. Baranowski T, Perry CL, Parcel GS. How individuals, environments and health behavior interact: social cognitive theory. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1997.
46. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Stages of and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983;51 (3):390–395. [PubMed]
47. Prochaska JO, Norcross JC, DiClemente CC. Changing for Good. New York, NY: Morrow; 1994.
48. Prochaska JO, Redding CO, Evers KE. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1997.
49. Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2002.
50. Colby SM, Monti PM, Barnett NP. Brief motivational interviewing in a hospital setting for adolescent smoking: a preliminary study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66(3):574–578. [PubMed] 51. Harland J, White M, Drinkwater C, Chinn D, Farr L, Howel D. The Newcastle exercise project: a randomized controlled trial of methods to promote physical activity in primary care. BMJ. 1999;319(7213):828–831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
52. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 2: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; 1997. [NIH publication No. 97-4051]
53. Etzel RA, Balk SJ. Handbook of Pediatric Environmental Health. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1999.
54. Institute of Medicine. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
55. Bierman C. Environmental control of asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 1996;16(4):753–765.
57. Tovey E, Marks G. Methods and effectiveness of environmental control. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103(2 pt 1):179–191. [PubMed] 58. Platts-Mills TA, Vaughan JW, Carter MC, Woodfolk JA. The role of intervention in established allergy: avoidance of indoor allergens in the treatment of chronic allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(5):787–804. [PubMed] 59. Eggleston PA. Improving indoor environments: reducing allergen exposures. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(1):122–126. [PubMed]
60. American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Pediatric Asthma: Promoting Best Practice. Milwaukee, WI: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology; 1999.
61. Roter DL, Hall JA, Merisca R, Nordstrom B, Cretin D, Svarstad B. Effectiveness of interventions to improve patient compliance: a meta-analysis. Med Care. 1998;36(8):1138–1161. [PubMed] 62. Clark NM, Nothwehr F, Gong M, et al. Physician-patient partnership in managing chronic illness. Acad Med. 1995;70(11):957–959. [PubMed]
63. Meichenbaum D, Turk D. Facilitating Treatment Adherence: A Practitioner’s Guidebook. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1987.
64. Heaney CA, Israel BA. Social networks and social support. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1997.
65. Berkman LF, Glass T. Social Integration, Social Networks, Social Support, and Health. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, editors. Social Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000. pp. 137–173.
66. Ehnert B, Lau-Schadendorf S, Weber A, Buettner P, Schou C, Wahn U. Reducing domestic exposure to dust mite allergen reduces bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitive children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;90(1):135–138. [PubMed] 67. Platts-Mills TA. Allergen avoidance in the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(3):207–208. [PubMed] 68. Popplewell EJ, Innes VA, Lloyd-Hughes S, et al. The effect of high-efficiency and standard vacuum-cleaners on mite, cat and dog allergen levels and clinical progress. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2000;11(3):142–148. [PubMed] 69. Munir AK, Einarsson R, Dreborg SK. Vacuum cleaning decreases the levels of mite allergens in house dust. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1993;4(3):136–143. [PubMed] 70. Roberts JW, Clifford WS, Glass G, Hummer PG. Reducing dust, lead, dust mites, bacteria, and fungi in carpets by vacuuming. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999;36(4):477–484. [PubMed] 71. Vaughan JW, Woodfolk JA, Platts-Mills TA. Assessment of vacuum cleaners and vacuum cleaner bags recommended for allergic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;104(5):1079–1083. [PubMed]
72. National Cooperative Inner City Asthma Study. A Guide for Helping Children with Asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;
73. Wilson SR, Starr-Schneidkraut N. State of the art in asthma education: the US experience. Chest. 1994;106(4 suppl):197S–205S. [PubMed] 74. Gibson PG, Powell H. Written action plans for asthma: an evidence-based review of the key components. Thorax. 2004;59(2):94–99. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 75. Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Ferrie PJ, Griffith LE, Townsend M. Measuring quality of life in the parents of children with asthma. Qual Life Res. 1996;5(1):27–34. [PubMed] 76. Clark NM, Gong M, Kaciroti N. A model of self-regulation for control of chronic disease. Health Educ Behav. 2001;28(6):769–782. [PubMed] 77. Brooks CM, Richards JM, Kohler CL, et al. Assessing adherence to asthma medication and inhaler regimens: a psychometric analysis of adult self-report scales. Med Care. 1994;32(3):298–307. [PubMed]
78. Nelson H. Clinical application of immediate skin testing. In: Spector SL, editor. Provocative Challenge Procedures. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1983. p. 148.
79. Demoly P, Piette V, Bousquet J. In vivo methods for the study of allergy. In: Adkinson N, editor. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 6. New York, NY: Mosby-Year Book Inc; 1998. chap 38.
80. Ryan TP. Modern Regression Analysis. New York, NY: Wiley Interscience; 1997.
81. Guyatt GH, Juniper EF, Walter SD, Griffith LE, Goldstein RS. Interpreting treatment effects in randomised trials. BMJ. 1998;316(7132):690–693. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 82. Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Willan A, Griffith LE. Determining a minimal important change in a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47(1):81–87. [PubMed]
83. Hoppin P, Jacobs M, Stillman L. Investing in Best Practices for Asthma: A Business Case for Education and Environmental Interventions. Boston, MA: New England Asthma Regional Council; 2007.
85. Greineder DK, Loane KC, Parks P. Outcomes for control patients referred to a pediatric asthma outreach program: an example of the Hawthorne effect. Am J Manag Care. 1998;4(2):196–202. [PubMed]