Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization.
Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) catheter with a 20 kDa cut-off was placed subcutaneously on the anterior aspect of the foot of both limbs. Samples were collected starting 12-hours before surgery and throughout the following 72-hours, using a CMA 600 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) microdialysis analyser.
Technical revascularization was successful in all cases. The cannulation was well tolerated in all patients. The site of catheter insertion healed easily in few days without infective complications in any case. Two patients underwent major amputation. After revascularization, glucose showed a strong increase (mean, 5.86 ± 1.52 mMol/L, p = .008). No restoration of the circadian rhythm was noted in patients who underwent major amputation. Glycerol concentration curves were not deductibles in both the ischemic and the control limbs (mean, 148.43 ± 42.13 mMol/L vs 178.44 ± 75.93 mMol/L, p = .348). Within the first 24-hours after revascularization, lactate concentration raised strongly (6.58 ± 1.56 mMol/L, p = .002): thereafter, it immediately decreased to a concentration similar to the control level (1.71 ± 1.69 mMol/L). In both patients who underwent major amputation, lactate did not show the typical peak of the successful revascularization. The trend of the lactate/pyruvate ratio after a brief initial decrease of the ratio increased again in both the patients who finally underwent amputation.
Restoration of glucose and glycerol circadian rhythm, coupled with low lactate concentration and lactate/pyruvate ratio seemed to be linked to good surgical outcome.