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c) The anconeal process usually fuses with the ulna at 16 to 24 weeks of age.
a) A dorsal incision in the uterine body is recommended. Incisions in the uterine horn may result in enough scarring to reduce future fertility.
c) The most common bacterial isolate from canine urine is Escherichia coli.
d) Fibromatous epulis is a benign neoplasm originating from the periodontal stroma. Epulides are often located in the gingival near incisor teeth. They are typically pedunculated, nonulcerating, and noninvasive neoplasms. They are not known to metastasize.
d) Fetal mummification is primarily caused by viral infections between day 35 and day 70 of gestation.
e) A right flank approach provides good surgical access to more abdominal structures than any other approach; however, some structures require an alternative approach. Surgical access to the reticulum is limited to a cranioventral midline approach or transruminally via a left flank approach. The abomasal fundus is best accessed via a right paramedian approach. This approach is also best for access to the omasoabomasal orifice, although access would still be poor in an adult cow. The dorsal rumen sac is best accessed via a left flank approach.
a) Abomasal displacement usually causes metabolic alkalosis. The other conditions listed may cause variable metabolic disturbances, depending upon the stage and severity of the disease.
e) Answer choice “a” is pus in the kidney; choice “b” is a mass in a blood vessel; “c and d” do not cause wedge-shaped lesions.
e) A brain tumor would be least likely because of the cat’s age.
e) Sand ingestion can result in diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption, and impaction in horses.
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