• Background and Aims Heterodichogamy differs from normal dichogamy, in that it involves two mating types (protogyny and protandry) that occur at a 1:1 ratio in a population. Flowering phases of the two mating types are synchronized and reciprocal, which was considered to ensure between-type outcrossing. This study aims to quantify the flowering pattern and pollination efficacy in Juglans mandshurica, a wind-pollinated heterodichogamous tree.
• Methods The pattern of flowering phenology was monitored within individual trees and pollen traps were used to measure air-borne pollen loads during the spring in 2003 and 2004. Pollen longevity was determined by staining technique. Also a pollen supplementation experiment was performed in 2004 to assess pollen limitation of fruit production.
• Key Results There was no overlap between sexual functions within individual trees. Flowering periods of the two mating types were reciprocal and synchronous in both 2003 and 2004. Air-borne pollen loads were large, and protogynous and protandrous individuals each produced a high pollination peak, consistent with the two blooming periods. Maximum pollen longevity was about 4h for protandrous individuals, and 3h for protogynous individuals. Pollen supplementation did not increase fruit production in either protogynous or protandrous individuals.
• Conclusions Heterodichogamous flowering in Juglans mandshurica effectively avoids selfing, promotes between-type outcrossing, and leads to efficient pollination in a natural population.
Keywords: Heterodichogamy, Juglans mandshurica, protandry, protogyny, pollination efficacy