1. Vandenbroucke JP. Observational research, randomised trials, and two views of medical science. PLoS Med 2008; 5: e67. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 2. Wolke D, Meyer R. Cognitive status, language attainment and pre-reading skills of 6-year-old very preterm children and their peers: the Bavarian Longitudinal Study. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999; 41: 94–109. [PubMed] 3. Aylward G, Pfeiffer S. Follow-up and outcome of low birthweight infants: conceptual issues and a methodology review. Aust Paediat J 1989; 25: 3–5. [PubMed] 4. Wolke D, Söhne B, Ohrt B, Riegel K. Follow-up of preterm children: important to document dropouts. Lancet 1995; 345: 447. [PubMed] 5. Golding J, Pembrey M, Jones R. ALSPAC – the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2001; 15: 74–87. [PubMed] 6. Goodman R, Ford T, Richards H, Gatward R, Meltzer H. The Development and Well-Being Assessment: description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. J Child Psych Psychiatry 2000; 41: 645–55. [PubMed]
7. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) text revision (DSM–IV–TR). APA, 2000.
8. Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA. Developmental issues in assessment, taxonomy, and diagnosis of psychopathology: life span and multicultural perspectives. In Developmental Psychopathology Volume 1: Theory and Method (eds D Cichetti, DJ Cohen): 139–80. John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
9. Bowen E, Heron J, Waylen A, Wolke D. Domestic violence risk during and after pregnancy: findings from a British longitudinal study. BJOG 2005; 112: 1083–9. [PubMed] 10. Counts CA, Nigg JT, Stawicki JA, Rappley MD, von Eye A. Family adversity in DSM–IV ADHD combined and inattentive subtypes and associated disruptive behavior problems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 44: 690–8. [PubMed] 11. Kotimaa AJ, Moilanen I, Taanila A, Ebeling H, Smalley SL, McGough JJ, et al. Maternal smoking and hyperactivity in 8-year-old children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003; 42: 826–33. [PubMed] 12. Linnet KM, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Rodriguez A, et al. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 1028–40. [PubMed]
13. Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Rutter M, Silva PA. Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
14. Bhutta AT, Cleves MA, Casey PH, Cradock MM, Anand KJ. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288: 728–37. [PubMed] 15. Wolke D. The psychological development of prematurely born children. Arch Dis Child 1998; 78: 567–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 16. Johnston C, Mash EJ. Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review and recommendations for future research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2001; 4: 183–207. [PubMed]
17. Fergusson D, Horwood L, Ridder E. Partner violence and mental health outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort. J Marriage Fam 2005; 67: 1103–19.
18. Farrington DP. The development of offending and antisocial behaviour from childhood: key findings from the Cambridge study in delinquent development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1995; 360: 929–64. [PubMed]
19. Henry B, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Silva PA. Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal convictions: age 3 to age 18. Dev Psychol 1996; 32: 614–23.
20. Cunningham CE, Boyle MH. Preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: family, parenting, and behavioral correlates. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2002; 30: 555–69. [PubMed]
21. Rothman K, Greenland S. Modern Epidemiology. Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
22. Szklo M, Nieto F. Epidemiology. Aspen, 2000.
23. Curtin T, Ingels S, Wu S, Heuer R, Owings J. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Base-Year to Fourth Follow-up Data File User’s Manual. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2002.
24. National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) – Overview Report. Publications Centre Human Resources Development Canada, 1996.
25. Ferri E. Forty years on: Professor Neville Butler and the British Birth Cohort studies. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1998; 12: 31–44. [PubMed] 26. Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Examining the intergenerational transmission of violence in a New Zealand birth cohort. Child Abuse Negl 2006; 30: 89–108. [PubMed] 27. Marlow N, Wolke D, Bracewell MA, Samara M. Neurologic and developmental disability at 6 years of age after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 9–19. [PubMed] 28. Laucht M, Esser G, Baving L, Gerhold M, Hoesch I, Ihle W, et al. Behavioral sequelae of perinatal insults and early family adversity at 8 years of age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39: 1229–37. [PubMed] 29. Parzen M, Lipsitz SR, Fitzmaurice GM, Ibrahim JG, Troxel A. Pseudo-likelihood methods for longitudinal binary data with non-ignorable missing responses and covariates. Stat Med 2005; 25: 2784–96. [PubMed] 30. Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A. Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 837–44. [PubMed]
31. Meltzer H, Gatward R, Goodman R, Ford T. The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in Great Britain: Summary Report. TSO (The Stationery Office), 2000.
32. O’Hara Hines RJ, Hines WG. An appraisal of methods for the analysis of longitudinal categorical data with MAR drop-outs. Stat Med 2005; 24: 3549–63. [PubMed]
33. Royston P. Multiple imputation of missing values: update of ice. Stata J 2005; 5: 527–36.
34. Moffitt TE, Avshalom C. Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Dev Psychopathol 2001; 13: 355–75. [PubMed] 35. Hernan MA, Hernandez-Diaz S, Robins JM. A structural approach to selection bias. Epidemiology 2004; 15: 615–25. [PubMed]
36. Berk RA. An introduction to sample selection bias in sociological data. Am Sociol Rev 1983; 48: 386–98.
37. Henry DB. Associations between peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and observations of malicious and disruptive behavior. Assessment 2006; 13: 241–52. [PubMed]
38. Diggle P, Kenward MG. Informative drop-out in longitudinal data analysis. Appl Stat 1994; 43: 49–93.
39. Little RJA. Modelling the drop-out mechanism in repeated-measures studies. J Am Stat Assoc 1995; 431: 1112–21.
40. Farrington D, Gallagher B, Morley L, St. Ledger R, West D. Minimizing attrition in longitudinal research: methods of tracing and securing cooperation in a 24-year follow-up study. In Data Quality in Longitudinal Research (eds D Magnusson, L Bergman): 122–47. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
41. Ribisl KM, Walton MA, Mowbray CT, Luke DA, Davidson WS, Bootsmiller BJ. Minimizing participant attrition in panel studies through the use of effective retention and tracking strategies: Review and recommendations. Eval Program Plann 1996; 19: 1–25.