Of the 142 subjects invited to participate, 10 were excluded because of incomplete data and one was excluded because of adherence to a special dietary regimen. The mean age for the remaining 131 subjects included in the analysis was 50.3 (standard deviation ± 11.2, range 35–65) years. shows demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the participants by gender.
Demographic and anthropometric characteristics of study subjects by gender
shows the proportion of the study population whose intake of protein, vitamin A, or vitamin C was lower than RDAs and LTIs. shows mean daily intake of these nutrients in rural and urban areas by gender, the corresponding RDAs and LTIs, and P values for difference between the daily intakes and RDAs and LTIs. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake. Daily intake of vitamin A was lower than RDA and LTI in 94% and 67% of rural women, respectively. The corresponding numbers for vitamin C intake were 100% and 73%. For both vitamins, the mean daily intake among rural women was lower than LTIs (P < 0.01). Vitamins A and C intakes by rural men were lower than RDAs (P < 0.01), but they were not significantly different from LTIs. In urban area, daily intake of vitamins A and C was lower than RDA in 61% and 64% of women, respectively. For both vitamins, the daily intakes among urban women were significantly lower than RDAs, but were significantly higher than LTIs. Among urban men, there was no significant difference between intake of vitamins A and C and RDAs. In both rural and urban areas, intake of proteins among men was significantly higher than the RDAs (P < 0.01), and women’s protein intake was not significantly different from RDAs.
Proportion of subjects with daily intakes lower than RDAs or LTIs
Mean daily intake of selected nutrients in urban and rural population of Golestan, and corresponding RDAs and LTIs, by gender
and show adjusted geometric mean differences in daily intake of food groups and nutrients by population subgroups among men and women. More significant differences were observed among women than men. Compared to rural dwellers, urban dwellers of both genders used more vegetables, fruit, meat, fat (nutrient), saturated fatty acids (SFA), cholesterol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene and less bread, cereal, and carbohydrates. Urban men had a higher legume and condiment intake than rural men, and urban women had a higher intake of fish, egg, dairy products, sugar, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and vitamins A and E and lower intake of potato compared to rural women. For both genders, intake of tea, fat (nutrient), SFA, and MUFA by Turkmens was higher, and intake of bread was lower, than by non-Turkmens. Turkmen men had a higher intake of fruit, non-Alcoholic beverages, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and lower intake of beta-carotene, compared to non-Turkmen men. Turkmen women had a higher intake of meat, fish, sugar, and cholesterol, and lower intake of legumes, vegetables, and carbohydrates, compared to non-Turkmen women. When we investigated food group and nutrient intakes among subjects with some school attendance and subjects without a history of attending school, only intake of bread and dairy products by men was different between these two subgroups.
Adjusted1 geometric mean differences (95% CIs) in daily intake of food groups and nutrients by population subgroups (only men)
Adjusted1 geometric mean differences (95% CIs) in daily intake of food groups and nutrients by population subgroups (only women)
shows differences of adjusted geometric means for daily intake of selected food groups and nutrients in strata defined by place of residence and ethnicity. In rural areas, Turkmens had a significantly higher intake of fruit, meat, total fat (nutrient), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and cholesterol and a lower intake of bread and carbohydrates than non-Turkmens, but in urban areas only intake of legumes and vegetables were significantly different, being lower among Turkmens. In both Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnic groups, urban dwellers had higher intake of all food groups and nutrients except for bread and carbohydrates, and most of these differences were statistically significant.
Adjusted1 geometric mean differences (95% CIs) for selected food groups and nutrients after stratification by place of residence and ethnicity