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The purpose of the present studies was to systematically investigate protein-mannitol interactions using vacuum drying, to obtain a better understanding of the effect of protein/mannitol wt/wt ratios on the physical state of mannitol and protein secondary structure in the dried state. Solutions containing β-lactoglobulin (βLg):mannitol (11–115 wt/wt) were vacuum dried at 5°C under 3000 mTorr of pressure. The physical state of mannitol was studied using x-ray powder physical state of mannitol was studied using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), polarized light microscopy (PLM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). XRPD studies indicated that mannitol remained amorphous up to 15 wt/wt βLg:mannitol ratio, whereas PLM showed the presence of crystals of mannitol in all dried samples except for the 11 wt/wt βLg:mannitol dried sample. FITR studies indicated that a small proportion of crystalline mannitol was present along with the amorphous mannitol in dried samples at lower (less than 15 wt/wt) βLg:mannitol ratios. The Tg of the dried 11 wt/wt βLg:mannitol sample was observed at 33.4°C in MDSC studies, which indicated that at least a part of mannitol co-existed with protein in a single amorphous phase. Evaluation of the crystallization exotherms indicated that irrespective of the βLg:protein wt/wt ratio in the initial sample, the protein to amorphous mannitol ratio was below 11 wt/wt in all dried samples. Second-derivative FTTR studies on dried βLg and recombinant human interferon α-2a samples showed that mannitol affected protein secondary structure to a varying degree depending on the overall mannitol content in the dried sample and the type of protein.