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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 April 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 April; 66(4): 431–441.
doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.2

Table 1

A comparison of nicotine vs. placebo related measurements. There was no significant bias on smoking level prior to each condition based on similar CO levels prior to placebo vs. nicotine patch applications. Post-scan nicotine levels confirmed robust differences in drug levels during placebo vs. nicotine scanning.

Placebo patch condition
Nicotine patch condition
t valueadfp value
CO level prior to patch application27.2 ± 13.0b25.0 ± 11.51.34180.20
Nicotine level at the end of scan (ng/ml)3.0 ± 4.734.3 ± 13.19.3214c<0.001*
Changed in pulse rate−4.9 ± 8.5−2.9 ± 11.30.78180.44
Change in systolic blood pressure3.9 ± 13.49.6 ± 12.32.12180.05*
Change in diastolic blood pressure5.8 ± 6.36.4 ± 10.30.27180.79
Change in withdrawal/side effect symptoms0.7 ± 1.40.8 ± 1.30.00171.00
Change in self-reported mood0.8 ± 2.91.5 ± 4.80.90180.38
aPaired t-test.
bMean ± standard deviation.
cNicotine levels were available in 15 subjects for both nicotine and placebo patch conditions. Nicotine levels were not available in one subject in placebo, two subjects in nicotine, 1 subject in both placebo and nicotine conditions due to laboratory errors (blood sample hemolysis or equipment problem).
dChanges from pre-patch application to immediately prior to patch removal, about 4.5 hour interval.
*Statistically significant