shows weighted descriptive statistics for the full samples (all males, all females) and for the samples limited to respondents with lifetime disorder (males with lifetime disorder, females with lifetime disorder). 84 percent of males are currently employed, while 79 percent of males with lifetime disorder are currently employed. Most males who are not employed are out of the labor force – among all males and males with lifetime disorder, only 3 percent of each sample is unemployed (not shown in table). Among females, 71 percent are currently employed, while 22 percent are out of the labor force; these statistics are similar in the female sample limited to respondents with a history of psychiatric disorder. About 7 percent of each female sample is currently unemployed (not shown in table).
Weighted means and standard errors (in italics)
In the full samples, 40 percent of males and 42 percent of females met diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorder at some point during their lifetime. The 12-month rates of any disorder were 18 percent for males and 24 percent for females. Affective disorders (e.g., major depression) were the most common disorder:11 percent of males and 17 percent of females met criteria for this disorder in the past 12 months. The 12-month prevalence of anxiety disorders was 7 percent among males, and 12 percent among females. These rates were much higher among men and women with a lifetime history of psychiatric disorder.
show descriptive statistics by racial/ethnic group for males () and females (). Among males, 85 percent of non-Latino whites are employed 80 percent of Latinos, 79 percent of African-Americans, 83 percent of Asians, and 85 percent of Caribbeans (). Among females, 73 percent of non-Latino whites are employed, 56 percent of Latinos, 72 percent of African-Americans, 64 percent of Asians, and 81 percent of Caribbeans (). For both males and females, unemployment rates are higher in all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to that of non-Latino whites.
Non-latino whites have the highest rate of psychiatric disorder. Among non-Latino white men, 20 percent have experienced a psychiatric disorder in the past year, compared to 15 percent of Latinos, 13 percent of African-Americans, 9 percent of Asians, and 19 percent of Caribbeans (). A similar pattern emerges for females – non-Latino whites have appreciably higher rates of 12-month disorder compared to racial/ethnic minorities.
In , we show results from OLS regressions in which a binary indicator of employment is the dependent variable. Our primary interest is in the coefficient of recent psychiatric disorder and the coefficients on the interactions between disorder and race/ethnicity. Column 1 shows findings for all males, column 2 shows findings for males with lifetime history of disorder, and columns 3 and 4 show findings for all females and females with lifetime disorder. Among all males and males with lifetime disorder, having a recent psychiatric disorder is associated with a 9 to 10 percentage point reduction in the likelihood of being employed. There does not appear to be racial/ethnic differences in this effect for any group aside from Caribbeans. The interaction between Carribean ethnicity and mental disorder is positive, large in size, and statistically significant in both the all males and the males with lifetime disorder samples. We caution, however, that the number of Caribbean males with recent disorder is relatively small (about 45) so this finding is driven by a small number of observations.
Racial/ethnic differences in effect of any recent mental disorder on employment OLS coefficient (T-statistic)
The pattern of results for females is somewhat different from that of males. The main effect of disorder on employment is negative, small in magnitude and not statistically significant at the 0.05 level in the all females sample or the females with lifetime disorder sample. There are differences, however, between some racial/ethnic minority groups and non-Latino whites in how recent disorder affects the probability of employment. In particular, among Latino women, having a recent disorder reduces the probability of employment by 11 to 14 percentage points. Among African-American women, there is suggestive evidence of a larger effect of disorder on employment compared to non-Latino whites. The coefficient on the interaction between African-American and disorder is only marginally statistically significant in the all females sample, and not statistically significant at conventional levels in the females with lifetime disorder sample.
In sum, findings from indicate that among males, mental disorders appreciably dampen the probability of employment among all racial/ethnic groups, with the possible exception of Caribbeans. Among females, the main effects of disorder on employment are much weaker overall, but we see large, negative effects specifically for Latinos. Other coefficients based on the full samples of men and women yield intuitive findings. The main effects of race/ethnicity on employment are negative for Latino, African-American, and Asian men, controlling for other factors. Among women, African-American and Caribbean women are more likely than non-Latino women to be employed, while Asian and Latino women are less likely than non-Latino women to be employed, controlling for other factors. Although not included in the tables, educational attainment is positively associated with employment, while chronic medical conditions detract from employment for both males and females. Among females, being married and the number of children detract appreciably from the likelihood of employment.
In , we examine the main effects and interactions with race/ethnicity of three types of disorder – affective disorders (e.g. major depression), anxiety disorders, and substance disorders. As in , we show results for samples of all males, males with lifetime disorder, all females, and females with lifetime disorder. Three findings related to racial/ethnic differences are notable. First, among males, while the main effects of disorder on employment appear to be driven by anxiety and affective disorders, substance disorders also may have a large impact for Asians and African-Americans. Second, among males, the protective effect of Caribbean ethnicity appears to operate through affective disorders. However, we caution that when examining some interactions, cell sizes become small. Finally, among females, we see that affective disorders detract from employment for all racial/ethnic groups, but anxiety disorders detract from employment only for Latinos and possibly for African-Americans.
Racial/ethnic differences in effects of recent affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders on employment OLS coefficient (T-statistic)