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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
J Org Chem. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 June 5.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC2767257
NIHMSID: NIHMS144468

Spiroborate Ester-Mediated Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy Ethers and its Conversion to Highly Enantiopure β-Amino Ethers

Abstract

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Borane-mediated reduction of aryl and alkyl ketones with α-aryl- and α-pyridyloxy groups affords β-hydroxy ethers in high enantiomeric purity (up to 99% ee) and in good yield, using as catalyst 10 mol % of spiroborate ester 1 derived from (S)-diphenylprolinol. Representative β-hydroxy ethers are successfully converted to β-amino ethers, with minor epimerization, by phthalimide substitution under Mitsunobu’s conditions followed by hydrazinolysis, to obtain primary amino ethers or by imide reduction with borane to afford β-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol ethers. Non-racemic Mexiletine and nAChR analogues with potential biological activity are also synthesized in excellent yield by mesylation of key β-hydroxy pyridylethers and substitution with 5, 6 and 7 member ring heterocyclic amines.

Introduction

Optically active β-hydroxy ethers are valuable building blocks in organic synthesis, in particular for their transformation to enantiopure β-amino ethers, which are important precursors in the preparation of a wide variety of pharmaceutical compunds.1 Accordingly, various methods have been sought for the asymmetric synthesis of β-hydroxy ethers, such as, the enantioselective ring opening of epoxides catalyzed by chiral Salen complexes2 and ring opening of optically active aryl oxiranes.1a However, the steric and electronic factors controlling the regioselectivity of the nucleophilic ring opening, usually, can generate a mixture of products producing modest yields.3 Furthermore, the classic method of ring opening, usually, requires high temperature and longer reaction time associated with side reactions, such as, isomerization, epimerization and/or rearrangement.1a,4 Recently, Wills and co-workers5 studied the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of functionalized acetophenone by a ruthenium (II) catalyst with a tethering group attachment from the basic nitrogen atom to the arene ligand. They applied the method to the reduction of a ketone ether obtaining the corresponding β-hydroxy ether in 95% ee. The enviromentally benign asymmetric reduction of functionalized ketones mediated by 1,3,2-oxazaborolidines (OB) and other chiral borane reagents has been extensively investigated by Corey6 and other groups (Figure 1).7,8 The B-H oxazaborolidine (2a) catalyzed reduction has been widely applied with high enantioselectivity and predictable configuration to α-haloketones,9 α-[(triorganosilyl)oxy] ketones,10a α-(2-pyranyl)oxy ketones,10b α-sulfonyloxy ketones,10c α-amido ketones,10d, diketones,11 α-keto acetals,12 α,β-enones and ynones,13 α-azido ketones,7h,j ketone esters,7f ketophosphonates,14 β-keto sulfides and sulfones.15 However, the in situ prepared B-H oxazaborolidines may possibly form side-products that can diminish the efficiency of the catalyst.16 Although B-Me and B-n-Bu oxazaborolidines (2b, 2c) could overcome these disadvantages, the use of relatively expensive trialkylboroxine or alkylboronic acid and the careful purification procedure required for their preparation, make these reagents expensive for multigram syntheses. The enantioselective reduction of β-keto ethers using affordable and environmentally friendly chiral boron catalysts is expected to be one of the most convenient methods for the synthesis of optically active β-hydroxy ethers.

Figure 1
Spiroborate Ester 1, Corey’s Oxazaborolidines 2, Brown’s reagent 3, Zhao’s reagent 4 and TarB-X Singaram's reagent 5.

Recently, a series of air and moisture-stable crystalline spiroborate esters has been easily synthesized in our laboratory from non-racemic 1,2-amino-alcohols, ethylene glycol and inexpensive triisopropyl borate.17a–b Spiroborate ester 1 (Figure 1) derived from diphenyl prolinol, which was isolated and characterized by X-ray, optical and spectroscopical methods, has demonstrated outstanding enantioselectivity for ketone reductions.17c–d The facile and successful use of spiroborate ester 1, has prompted us to investigate its application for the reduction of key β-keto ethers. Herein, we wish to report a highly efficient synthesis of β-hydroxy ethers with excellent enantiomeric purity in high yield and study its conversion to a wide variety of β-amino ethers, Mexiletine and nAChR analogues.

Results and Discussion

The reduction of ketone ether 6a, as shown in Scheme 1, was initially selected as a model substrate. Ketone 6a was readily prepared in high yield by the treatment of 2-bromoacetophenone with K2CO3 (1.5 equiv) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (1.5 equiv) in DMF at room temperature for 24 h.18 To establish the most advantageous conditions, different catalytic loads (Table 1, entry 1–3), dioxane as an alternative solvent and the use of other borane sources (entries 4–6), were evaluated. Initially, the reduction of ketone 6a with BH3·DMS in THF at 25 °C using 1%, 5% and 10% of catalyst 1 was investigated. A remarkable increase in enantioselectivity and eficiency of the reaction was achieved with 10% of catalyst, providing the alcohol 7a in 98% ee and 96% isolated yield. Dioxane was found as an unsuitable solvent for the reaction, giving only 65% ee. Although BH3·BACH-EI (Borane N-ethyl-N-isopropylaniline complex) and BH3·THF provided 99% and 98% ee, respectively, BH3·DMS was more attractive due to its low price and stability.

SCHEME 1
Asymmetric Synthesis of Model β-hydroxy ether 7a
TABLE 1
Optimization Studies for the Asymmetric Reduction of β-Keto Ether 6aa

Having optimized the reaction conditions, the reduction of a variety of β-keto aryl and pyridyl ethers with aliphatic and aromatic substituents was accomplished. Table 2 illustrates the optical rotation, yield and enantiomeric excess for the prepared enantiopure secondary alcohols. In general, the β-hydroxy ethers were afforded in 92–99% ee and with excellent yield. Generally, steric and electronic effects of the substituents attached to both aromatic rings on the enantioselectivity of the reaction were not observed. For example, β-aryl keto ethers bearing both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups on the aryl groups afford excellent enantioselectivities (entries 1–7). It is important to note that the reduction of aliphatic β-keto ethers containing cyclohexanyl and adamanty groups provide the desired alcohols in 93% ee and 99% ee, respectively, and in high yield (entries 8 and 9). It should be pointed out that 1.7 equiv BH3·DMS is needed for the reduction of pyridyl ethers because one borane molecule coordinates to the pyridine nitrogen. Surprisingly, the β-keto 2-pyridyl ethers (entries 10, 11 and 13), that could bring forth a non-selective intramolecular borane reduction, afford excellent enantioselectivities in good to high yields. The 3-pyridyl ethers also offered high enantio-purity and excellent yields (entries 12–14). The absolute configuration of products was determined by comparison with the optical rotations of corresponding known compounds.1a

TABLE 2
Asymmetric Reduction of β-Keto Aryl and Pyridyl Ethersa

Optically active β-amino aryl ethers display a key role in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders (Figure 2).1 The commercial Mexiletine, as a racemate 8, is used as an anti-arrhythmic and analgesic oral drug,1a but due to side effects, such as dizziness, heartburn, nausea, nervousness, trembling and unsteadiness, its use is limited. The optically active Mexiletine analogue (R)-9 is more potent than the more active (R)-Mexiletine isomer.1a,e The racemic potent β-blocker of voltage-gated K+ channels 10 was recently discovered, using structure-based virtual screening in combination with electrophysiological assays in rat hippocampal neurons.19f In addition, other important β-amino ethers are neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) agonists, which are a group of ligand-gated ion channels that hold significant promise as therapeutic targets for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system disorders.20 As shown in Figure 2, the β-amino pyridyl ethers A-84534 (11),21 ABT-594 (12),22 NIDA52189 (13)23 and related compounds have been investigated as potential drug candidates. Recently, we reported a new methodology for the synthesis of novel Mexiletine analogues by the reduction of benzylated oxime ethers with excellent enantiopurity.18b As part of our ongoing programs, we are interested in developing alternative methodologies for the synthesis of a variety primary β-amino pyridyl ethers with possible neurobiological activity. Since β-hydroxy ethers are easily converted into β-amino ethers employing the Mitsunobu reaction24 with only slightly decrease in enantioselectivity,25 we were interested in the synthesis of Mexiletine and nAChRs analogues from the previously prepared optically pure β-hydroxy pyridyl ethers.

FIGURE 2
Mexiletine and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Agonist

As outlined in Table 3, the optically pure alcohols 7 were readily transformed into 14 by a stereo-specific substitution reaction of the hydroxyl group with phthalimide employing a typical Mitsunobu procedure. After hydrazinolysis of phthalimido ethers 14, the desired bioactive β-amino ethers were obtained with inversion of configuration at the stereogenic center in moderate to good yields. Chiral HPLC analysis indicated high enatiomeric purity of the β-amino ethers 14 (95% ee to 99% ee) (Table 3 entries 1–6), with only a slight racemization. Interestingly, adamanty and pyridyl ethers are also suitable substrates for this transformation demonstrating the efficiency and the functional tolerance of this reaction towards phenoxy and pyridyl groups.

TABLE 3
Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Amino Ethers from Optically Pure Alcohols

Based upon similar structural features present in nAChRs agonist, we investigated the reduction of phthalimide ethers 14 to obtain 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol derivatives (Scheme 2). BH3·DMS in THF (8 equiv) was employed for the imide reduction. After the mixture was refluxed for 1.5 h, the reaction was quenched with MeOH at 0 °C. As evidenced by TLC analysis, the starting material was consumed and only one compound was observed. Surprisingly, amide 16j, formed by mono-reduction of the phtalimide ether, was identified by NMR analysis as the initial partial reduction product. After the reaction time was extended to 8 h, the target product 17j was obtained in 71% yield.

SCHEME 2
Reduction of Representative Phthalimide 14j.

Under the previous optimized conditions, representative substrates were reduced to 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol derivatives 17 using 8 equiv BH3·DMS in anhydrous THF for 10 h. As shown in Table 4, various chiral 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol derivatives were provided in good to high yields. Moreover, by control of the reaction time, selective reduction can provide a rapid access to novel amides and amino acids with potential biological applications.

TABLE 4
Synthesis of Novel nAChRs Analogues by Reduction of Optically Active Lactame 14

Many biologically important compounds contain an heterocyclic ring in their structure, and many piperidine derivatives are also in clinical and preclinical studies.26 Our interest in the synthesis of nicotinic analogues prompted us to investigate the direct substitution of the hydroxyl group with a secondary cyclic amines, such as pyrrolidine, piperidine or azepane. Considering the efficiency and convenience of the Mitsunobu reaction, we initially explored this procedure (Figure 4). Unfortunately, no product was observed even by increasing the reaction temperature and time, and only starting materials were observed by TLC. Consequently, an alternative route was searched.

One of the most common methods for the preparation of tertiary heterocyclic amine is the displacement of a sulfonated intermediate with the secondary aliphatic amines. To investigate the possibility of this transformation with complete inversion of configuration, optically active alcohol 7a (Table 5) was chosen as a model. The mesylate (S)-18a was prepared by conventional treatment of alcohol with mesyl chloride in the presence of Et3N. Considering the instability of mesylate 18a on the chromatographic columm, this intermediate was used without further purification and was treated directly with pyrrolidine in acetonitrile. To our delight, the desirable product 19a was obtained in 83% yield for the two steps. A baseline separation of the racemic sample was not satisfactory for chiral GC and HPLC analysis, however a good baseline separation was achieved for the chiral HPLC analysis of racemic compound 19b. As indicated in table 5 (entry 3), the optical purity of this product was 98% ee. As desired, the reaction took place stereoselectively via an SN2 process as the optical purity of 19b is even higher than the enantiopurity of the starting alcohol (S)-7l (97% ee). Under similar condition, various secondary aliphatic amines and substrates were examined. As shown in Table 5, pyrrolidine, piperidine and azepane derivatives are obtained in good yields, providing a rapid access to new nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) analogues in high optical purity.

TABLE 5
Synthesis of β-Novel Heterocyclic Ethers

Conclusions

Spiroborate ester 1 demonstrated to be an excellent catalyst for the facile enantioselective borane reduction of representative β-keto aryl and pyridylethers using 10% of catalytic load in THF at room temperature. A wide range of aliphatic and aromatic β-hydroxy ethers were afforded in optically pure form in up to 99% ee and in high yield. Electronic factors or steric effects in the aryl or pyridyl rings, do not affect significantly the enantioselectivity of the spiroborate ester mediated reduction. The non-racemic β-hydroxy ethers were successfully converted to β-amino ethers with negligible epimerization by phthalimide substitution under Mitsunobu’s conditions. By a facile imide hydrazinolysis, representative primary aryl and alkyl amino ethers were achieved in good yield. Complete phthalimide reduction with borane provided the corresponding β-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol derivatives in good yield. In addition, the partial imide reduction can afford important β-amide ethers, which by hydrolysis can be transformed to aromatic ortho-secondary amino acids with a β-aryl and pyridyloxy moiety. In addition, non-racemic novel Mexiletine and nAChR analogues with potential biological activity were synthesized in enantiopure form and excellent yields by mesylation of key β-hydroxy pyridylethers and in situ substitution with pyrrolidine, piperidine and azepane to form, respectively, 5, 6 and 7 member ring heterocyclic amino ethers.

Experimental Section

General Procedure for the Reduction of β-Keto Ethers (6a–6i)

To a dried 50 mL reaction tube under N2, catalyst 117a (65 mg, 0.2 mmol) and anhydrous THF (4 mL) was added. Then, BH3 ·DMS (0.14 mL, 10.0 M) was added in one portion. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min until a transparent solution was observed. A solution of β-keto ether18 (2 mmol) in THF (3 mL) was added dropwise during 1 h by a syringe pump. The resulting mixture was stirred for another 1 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled with ice-bath and quenched with MeOH (3 mL). The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and to the residue was added 1N HCl (10 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with ether (3×30 mL) and the combined organic phases were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4. After solvent removal under reduced pressure and purification by silica gel column chromatography, the corresponding β-hydroxy ethers (7) were provided.

(S)-1-Adamantan-1-yl-2-phenoxy-ethanol (7i)

White solid; mp 65–66 °C; yield 96% (262 mg); >99% ee; [α]20D = +41 (c 1.5, CHCl3); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3):δ 7–1.83 (m, 12H), 2.08 (m, 3H,), 2.38 (br s, 1H, OH), 3.58 (m, 1H), 3.98 (m, 1H), 4.19 (m, 1H), 6.97–7.04 (m, 3H), 7.32–7.37 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 28.4, 35.7, 37.2, 38.4, 68.6, 114.7, 121.1, 129.5, 158.7; IR ν (cm−1) 3454, 2912, 2893, 2848, 1600, 1585, 1497, 1450, 1298, 1241, 1172, 1086, 1048, 1034, 1022, 986, 895, 880, 814, 749, 688; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C18H24NaO2 (M+Na)+ 295.1674, found 295.1666. Enantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC with a Chiralpak OD-H column (95:5 hexane: 2-propanol), 0.5 mL/min, 254 nm, minor enantiomer tR = 16.65 min, major enantiomer tR = 26.69 min.

General Procedure for the Reduction of β-Keto Pyridyl Ethers (6j–6m)

To a dried 50 mL reaction tube under N2, catalyst 1 (65 mg, 0.2 mmol) and anhydrous THF (4 mL) was added. Then, BH3 ·DMS (0.34 mL, 10.0 M) was added in one portion. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min until a transparent solution was observed. A solution of β-keto pyridyl ethers (2 mmol) in THF (4 mL) was added dropwise during 1 h by a syringe pump. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled with ice-bath and quenched with MeOH (5 mL). After the mixture was refluxed for 3 hours, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography.

(S)-2-(6-Chloro-pyridin-2-yloxy)-1-phenyl-ethanol (7j)

White solid; mp 85–86 °C; yield 88% (659 mg); 99% ee; [α]20D = +48 (c 1.0, CHCl3); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 3.12 (br s, 1H), 4.41 (m, 1H), 4.60 (m, 1H), 5.19 (m, 1H), 6.78 (m, 1H), 6.98 (m, 1H), 7.35 (m, 1H), 7.44 (m, 2H), 7.53 (m, 2H), 7.62 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 72.2, 72.9, 109.4, 116.9, 126.3, 128.1, 128.6, 140, 141, 148.3, 163.2; IR ν (cm−1) 3368, 2988, 2941, 1588, 1559, 1493, 1433, 1407, 1296, 1261, 1159, 1082, 1056, 1021, 1006, 983, 921, 899, 788, 756, 701; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C13H12ClNNaO2 (M+Na)+ 272.0454, found 272.0454. Enantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC with a Chiralpak OD-H column (9:1 hexane: 2-propanol), 0.5 mL/min, 254 nm, major enantiomer tR = 16.72 min, minor enantiomer tR = 20.54 min.

General Procedure for the Synthesis of Compounds 14 via a Mitsunobo Reaction

To a mixture of the optically pure alcohol (2 mmol), phthalimide (441 mg, 3 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (786 mg, 3 mmol) in 20 mL of anhydrous THF under N2 at room temperature, a solution of DIAD (603 mg, 3 mmol) in anhydrous THF (10 mL) was added dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred until TLC indicated that the alcohol was consumed. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography, affording the corresponding imide.

(R)-2-(1-Adamantan-1-yl-2-phenoxy-ethyl)-isoindole-1,3-dione (14i)

Colorless oil; yield 86% (345 mg); reaction time 72h; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.7–1.77 (m, 9H), 1.82–1.88 (m, 3H), 2.06 (m, 3H), 4.43 (m, 2H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 6.88 (m, 2H), 6.96 (m, 1H), 7.26 (m, 2H), 7.77 (m, 2H), 7.84 (m, 1H), 7.92 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 28.3, 28.4, 36.8, 37.1, 37.2, 38.4, 40.1, 60.8, 63.0, 115, 121, 123.1, 123.4, 129.4, 131.6, 133.8, 134.0, 158.6, 169.5; IR ν (cm−1) 3512, 3039, 2900, 2847, 1773, 1710, 1599, 1587, 1496, 1450, 1392, 1345, 1241, 1171, 1076, 1032, 1013, 986, 874, 751, 736, 716, 690; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C26H28NO3 (M+H)+ 402.2069, found 402.2079.

General Procedure for the Synthesis of β-Amino Ether 15 via Hydrazinolysis

To a stirred solution of 14 (1 mmol) in 5 mL EtOH, 50–60% N2H4 (256 mg, 8 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was refluxed for 3 h. The precipitated solid was filtered off and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue, dissolved in ether, was extracted with 2 N HCl and the aqueous phase was treated with 2 N NaOH until pH >12. The aqueous phase was extracted with ether (3×20 mL) and the combined organic phases were dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated under reduced pressure to give the target product. For the amine of 15i, 15j and 15l, because of their water solubility, the desired products were obtained, directly, by silica gel column chromatography.

(R)-1-Admantan-1-yl-2-phenoxy-ethylamine (15i)

White solid; mp 61–62 °C; yield 86% (465 mg); >99% ee; [α]20D = −29 (c 1.0, CHCl3); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.48 (bs, 2H), 1.72–1.81 (m, 12H), 2.07 (m, 3H), 2.78 (m, 1H), 3.82 (m, 1H), 4.22 (m, 1H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 6.96–7.01 (m, 2H), 7.31–7.35 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 28.5, 35.3, 37.3, 38.9, 59.5, 69.5, 114.7, 120.8, 129.5, 159.0; IR ν (cm−1) 3371, 3308, 2901, 2893, 2849, 1727, 1599, 1587, 1498, 1467, 1449, 1301, 1285, 1243, 1179, 1077, 1038, 1031, 1018, 990, 960, 900, 879, 815, 755, 691; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C18H26NO (M+H)+ 272.2009, found 272.2015; Enantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC for acetyl derivative with a Chiralpak OD-H column (96:4 hexane: 2-propanol), 0.4 mL /min, 254 nm, major enantiomer tR = 43.11 min, minor enantiomer tR = 47.73 min.

(R)-2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-3-yloxy)-1-phenyl-ethylamine (15l)

Colorless oil; yield 66% (136 mg); 97% ee; [α]20D = −37 (c 1.3, CHCl3); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.98 (br s, 2H), 2.52 (s, 3H), 3.98 (m, 1H), 4.13 (m, 1H), 4.47 (m, 1H), 7.07–7.15 (m, 2H), 7.33–7.50 (m, 5H), 8.23 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 23.4, 55.2, 74.5, 122.1, 123.3, 126.9, 127.9, 128.7, 136.9, 141.6, 150.8, 152.9; IR ν (cm−1) 3368, 3291, 3060, 3026, 2923, 2866, 1599, 1572, 1484, 1454, 1387, 1287, 1265, 1240, 1212, 1122, 1023, 825, 759, 702; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C14H17N2O (M+H)+ 229.1341, found 229.1351; Enantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC for acetyl derivative with a Chiralcel OD-H column (9:1 hexane: 2-propanol), 0.5 mL /min, 254 nm, major enantiomer tR = 46.32 min, minor enantiomer tR = 55.8 min.

General Procedure for the Synthesis of Compounds 16 and 17 via Borane Reduction

To a stirred solution of 14 (1 mmol) in anhydrous THF under nitrogen, BH3·DMS (0.8 mL, 10 M, 8 mmol) was added. Compound 16 was produced after the mixture was refluxed for 1.5 h. Compound 17 was formed by complete reduction when the mixture was refluxed overnight. In both cases, the reaction mixtures were slowly quenched with 5 mL MeOH at 0 °C. The corresponding products were isolated after the solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue purified by silica gel column chromatography.

(R)-2-(1-Adamantan-1-yl-2-phenoxy-ethyl)-2,3-dihydro-isoindol-1-one (16i)

White solid; mp 148–150 °C; yield 81% (313 mg); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.70–1.82 (m, 9H), 1.88 (m, 3H), 2.09 (m, 3H), 4.37 (m, 2H), 4.58 (m, 3H), 6.89–7.0 (m, 3H), 7.29 (m, 2H), 7.45–7.60 (m, 3H), 7.95 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 28.5, 36.9, 40.3, 64.5, 114.8, 121.1, 122.5, 123.9, 127.9, 129.5, 131.2, 141.6, 158.6; IR ν (cm−1) 3039, 2918, 2899, 2875, 2850, 1731, 1676, 1597, 1498, 1483, 1448, 1401, 1303, 1288, 1246, 1218, 1175, 1164, 1018, 989, 947, 896, 879, 834, 815,796, 753, 735, 688; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C26H30NO2 (M+H)+ 388.2277, found 388.2299.

(R)-2(1-Adamantan-1-yl-2-phenoxy-ethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindole (17i)

Colorless oil; yield 65% (121 mg); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.72–1.77 (m, 9H), 1.88 (m, 3H), 2.06 (m, 3H), 2.89 (m, 1H), 4.36 (m, 6H), 6.89–6.99 (m, 3H), 7.21 (m, 4H), 7.30 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 28.7, 37.3, 38.2, 40.2, 57.7, 64.9, 67.7, 114.6, 120.6, 122.1, 126.2, 129.4, 140.6, 158.8; IR ν (cm−1) 2961, 2899, 2846, 1693, 1598, 1587, 1495, 1468, 1448, 1360, 1344, 1300, 1258, 1240, 1170, 1152, 1135, 1077, 1031, 1017, 858, 796, 739, 689; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C26H32NO (M+H)+ 374.2484, found 374.2491.

General Procedure for the Synthesis of 18

To a two-neck round bottom flask under nitrogen, a solution of the nonracemic alcohol (2 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (20 mL) and Et3N (1.7 mL, 10 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and MsCl (0.46 mL, 6 mmol) was added dropwise for 0.5 h by a syringe pump. The resulting solution was stirred until TLC indicated that the starting material was consumed (about 30 min). Water (20 mL) was added to quench the reaction and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (3×10 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure at 25 °C, affording the crude product.

General Procedure for the Synthesis of 19

To the crude sulfonate intermediate 18 (2 mmol) in 10 mL CH3CN at room temperature, the corresponding heterocyclic amine (5 equiv) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography.

(R)-2-Methyl-5-(2-phenyl-2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-pyridine (19b)

Colorless oil; yield 87% (259 mg); 98% ee; [α]20D = −13 (c 1.3, CHCl3); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.45 (m, 2H), 1.62 (m, 4H), 2.52 (m, 7H), 3.80 (m, 1H), 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.42 (m, 1H), 7.05–7.13 (m, 2H), 7.33–7.40 (m, 5H), 8.2 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 23.4, 24.5, 26.3, 52.2, 69.2, 70.4, 122.4, 123.3, 127.5, 128.3, 128.5, 137.2, 150.5, 152.9; IR ν (cm−1) 3374, 3059, 3028, 2931, 2853, 2799, 2755, 1600, 1572, 1485, 1471, 1452, 1387, 1266, 1239, 1212, 1175, 1118, 1027, 992, 912, 827, 758, 723, 699; ESI HRMS m/z calculated for C19H25N2O (M+H)+ 297.1967, found 297.1968. Enantiomeric excess was determined by HPLC with a Chiralcel AD-H column (95:5 hexane: 2-propanol), 0.5 mL /min, 254 nm, major enantiomer tR = 17.65 min, minor enantiomer tR = 19.62 min.

SCHEME 3
Attempted Substitution of the Hydroxyl Group with Pyrrolidine by Mitsunobu’s Method.

Supplementary Material

Experimental Data

Spectra and Enantiomeric Excess Determination

Acknowledgment

We thank NIH for the financial support through their MBRS (GM 08216), INBRE (NC P20 RR-016470) and NSF-ADVANCE (SBE-0123645). Support for undergraduate scholars from the NIH-INBRE, NIH-RISE, NIH-MARC, and NSF-AMP programs is also gratefully acknowledged.

Footnotes

Supporting Information Available: experimental data and full characterization of new and known compounds, and spectral and chromatographic data of starting materials and enantiopure compounds. This material is free of charge via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.

References

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