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AAPS PharmSci. 2000 September; 2(3): 38–44.
Published online 2000 July 27. doi:  10.1208/ps020323
PMCID: PMC2761134

Recovery of human skin impedance in vivo after lontophoresis: Effect of metal ions


The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the counter-ion (cation) on the recovery of human skin impedance after iontophoresis in vivo. A series of metal chloride aqueous solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) was investigated: first at the same concentration (133 mmol/L) and then at the same ionic strength as a NaCl solution at 133 mmol/L. The influence of hydration alone was also examined as a control. The recovery of human skin impedance was followed in the frequency range 1–1,000 Hz, over a 30-minute period after iontophoresis during which 3 impedance spectra were recorded. The results revealed that at t=30 minutes post-iontophoresis, skin impedance was approximately 3 times greater than the value immediately after the cessation of current passage. However, the results showed that the nature of the cation had no effect on recovery, regardless of whether the ions were at the same concentration or at an equivalent ionic strength. A simple parallel RC-equivalent circuit model for skin was used to determine the resistive (R) and capacitive (C) contributions to skin impedance. An analysis of variance on the calculated R and C values did not show any differences between the electrolytes used at the 2 different ionic strengths.


published July 27, 2000

Contributor Information

Catherine Curdy, rf.spmahcra-ruc.lamrahp@ydruc.

Yogeshvar N. Kalia, rf.spmahcraruc.lamrahp@ailak.

Richard H. Guy, Phone: 33-0-3-, Fax: 33-0-4-, rf.spmahcra-ruc.1amrahp@ghr.


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