Simulated Positional Dependence. This figure summarizes simulated results to quantify the positional dependence of volume sensing. We used finite element analysis to simulate excitation with 25 μA introduced by sensors with positional displacements, in an 8 fold increase in volume. Positions a – d were spaced 0.47 mm apart from each other with position A being the center of the cavity. Position e simulates a large dislocation of the sensor with an angle of 10°. Despite variability in the measurements due to the horizontal positioning, the conductance volume trends are conserved.