The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hyperlipoproteinemia on the biodistribution of cyclosporine A (CyA), an extensively lipoprotein bound immunosuppressant, in a rat model and to determine the potential toxicological significance of this effect. Normolipidemic and hyperlipoproteinemic rats were given a single 5 mg/kg dose of CyA as intravenous bolus and at selected times postdose, tissues, blood, and plasma were harvested and assayed for CyA content. Hyperlipoproteinemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1 g/kg poloxamer 407. Compared with normolipidemic animals, hyperlipoproteinemic rats had higher plasma, blood, kidney, and liver CyA concentrations. In contrast, in heart and spleen the concentrations were decreased in hyperlipoproteinemia. The nephrotoxic effect of CyA was also evaluated in normolipidemic and hyperlipoproteinemic rats after 7 days of dosing with 20 mg/kg/day. In both groups of animals, repeated doses of CyA were associated with equivalent decreases in creatinine and urea clearances compared with matching control and predose baseline measures. The concentrations of drug in kidney were equivalent at the conclusion of the study. However, despite these similarities there was microscopic evidence of more severe changes in the kidneys in the hyperlipoproteinemic rats, which also experienced a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normolipedemic animals. In conclusion, the distribution of CyA to kidneys was enhanced in poloxamer 407-induced hyperlipoproteinemic rats after single doses, and with repeated doses there was an apparent greater adverse effect on these animals compared with normolipidemic animals.
Keywords: Biodistribution, hyperlipoproteinemia, protein binding, nephrotoxicity