Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of pharmscispringer.comThis journalToc AlertsSubmit OnlineOpen Choice
AAPS PharmSci. 2004 June; 6(2): 17–26.
Published online 2015 July 10. doi:  10.1208/ps060215
PMCID: PMC2751007

Evaluation of the potential use of poly(ethylene oxide) as tablet- and extrudate-forming material


The purpose of this study was to assess the potential use of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as matrix-forming mate-rial for tablets and extrudates. Raw materials were characterized for size, size distribution, and shape. Tablets with 2- and 10-mm diameter were prepared by direct compression at both 13 and 38 MPa from mixtures with poly(ethylene oxide)s, a model drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and lactose. To these mixtures water was added (16%–43%) prior to extrusion in a ram extruder fit with different dies (1-, 3-, 6-, and 9-mm diameter and 4-mm length). Tablets and extrudates were characterized for work of compression or extrusion, respectively, relaxation, tensile strength, friability, and drug release. Both PEOs produced tablets easily and with different properties. Some relaxation was observed, particularly for tablets with higher amounts of PEOs. Release of the drug occurred after swelling of the matrix, and between 10% and 70% drug released, a quasi zero-order release was observed for large tablets. Extrusion was possible for formulations with PEO only with amounts of water between 16% and 50%. Both radial and axial relaxation of both plugs and extrudates were observed. Moreover, different extrusion profiles reflected the different behaviors of the different formulations. The model drug was released in the same fashion as observed for the tablets. It was possible to produce tablets by direct compression and extrudates or pellets from those extrudates from different formulations with PEO. Tablets and pellets have shown distinct properties depending upon the PEO considered. Extrusion was particularly complex with different formulations with PEO.

Key words: extrusion, minitablet, pellet, poly(ethylene oxide), tablet


Published: April 14, 2004


1. Witt C, Mader K, Kissel T. The degradation, swelling and erosion properties of biodegradable implants prepared by extrusion or compression moulding of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and ABA triblock copolymers. Biomaterials. 2000;21:931–938. doi: 10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00262-8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
2. Washburn NR, Simon CG, Tona A, Elgendy HM, Karim A, Amis EJ. Co-extrusion of biocompatible polymers for scaffolds with co-continuous morphology. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;60:20–29. doi: 10.1002/jbm.10049. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
3. Rades T, Mueller-Goymann CC. Interactions between fenoprofen sodium and poly(ethylene oxide) Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1998;46:51–59. doi: 10.1016/S0939-6411(97)00161-6. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. Efentakis M, Koutlis A, Vlachou M. Development and evaluation of oral multiple-unit and single-unit hydrophilic controlled-release systems. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech. 2000; article 34. Available at: [PMC free article] [PubMed]
5. Lim LX, Khang JM, Rhees JM, Lee HB. Monolithic osmotic tablet system for nifedipine delivery. J Control Release. 2000;67:309–322. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(00)00222-4. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
6. Repka MA, McGinity JW. Influence of Vitamin E TPGS on the properties of hydrophilic films produced by hot-melt extrusion. Int J Pharm. 2000;202:63–70. doi: 10.1016/S0378-5173(00)00418-X. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
7. Pillay V, Fassihi R. Electrolyte-induced compositional heterogeneity: a novel approach for rate-controlled oral drug delivery. J Pharm Sci. 1999;88:1140–1148. doi: 10.1021/js9901054. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
8. Fuller CS, MacRae RJ, Walther M, Cameron RE. Interactions in poly(ethylene oxide)-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose blends. Polymer. 2001;42:9583–9592. doi: 10.1016/S0032-3861(01)00477-3. [Cross Ref]
9. Razaghi AM, Schwartz JB. Release of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride from osmotically rupturable tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2002;28:695–701. doi: 10.1081/DDC-120003861. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
10. Yang L, Eshraghi J, Fassihi R. A new intragastric delivery system for the treatment of Helicobacter pilori associated gastric ulcer: in vitro evaluation. J Control Release. 1999;57:215–222. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(98)00066-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
11. Kim CJ. Drug release from compressed hydrophilic polyox-WSR tablets. J Pharm Sci. 1995;84:303–306. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600840308. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
12. Repka MA, Prodduturi S, Stodghill SP. Production and characterisation of hot-melt extruded films containing clotrimazole. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2003;29:757–765. doi: 10.1081/DDC-120021775. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
13. Crowley MM, Zhang F, Koleng JJ, McGinity JW. Stability of polyethylene oxide in matrix tablets prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Biomaterials. 2002;23:4241–4248. doi: 10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00187-4. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
14. Fell JT, Newton JM. Determination of tablet strength by the diametral-compression test. J Pharm Sci. 1970;59:688–691. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600590523. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
15. Yang L, Venkatesh G, Fassihi R. Compaction simulator study of a novel triple layer tablet matrix for industrial tableting. Int J Pharm. 1997;152:45–52. doi: 10.1016/S0378-5173(97)04911-9. [Cross Ref]
16. Tomer G, Newton JM. Water movement evaluation during extrusion of wet powder masses by collecting extrudate fractions. Int J Pharm. 1999;182:71–77. doi: 10.1016/S0378-5173(99)00061-7. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Articles from AAPS PharmSci are provided here courtesy of American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists