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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006 March; 7(1): E131–E137.
Published online 2006 March 10. doi:  10.1208/pt070119
PMCID: PMC2750726

Formulation of a dry powder influenza vaccine for nasal delivery


The purpose of this research was to prepare a dry powder vaccine formulation containing whole inactivated influenza virus (VIIV) and a mucoadhesive compound suitable for nasal delivery. Powders containing WIIV and either lactose or trehalose were produced by lyophilization. A micro-ball mill was used to reduce the lyophilized cake to sizes suitable for nasal delivery. Chitosan flakes were reduced in size using a cryo-milling technique. Milled powders were sieved between 45 and 125 μm aggregate sizes and characterized for particle size and distribution, morphology, and flow properties. Powders were blended in the micro-ball mill without the ball. Lyophilization followed by milling produced irregularly shaped, polydisperse particles with a median primary particle diameter of ≈21 μm and a yield of ≈37% of particles in the 45 to 125 μm particle size range. Flow properties of lactose and trehalose powders after lyophilization followed by milling and sieving were similar. Cryo-milling produced a small yield of particles in the desired size range (<10%). Lyophilization followed by milling and sieving produced particles suitable for nasal delivery with different physicochemical properties as a function of processing conditions and components of the formulation. Further optimization of particle size and morphology is required for these powders to be suitable for clinical evaluation.

Keywords: Intranasal delivery, dry powder, influenza vaccine, mucoadhesive, lyophilization

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Selected References

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