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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006 March; 7(1): E95–E103.
Published online 2006 February 10. doi:  10.1208/pt070114
PMCID: PMC2750721

Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement, a process analytical technology tool for freeze-drying: Part I, product temperature measurement


This study examines the factors that may cause systematic errors in the manometric temperature measurement (MTM) procedure used to evaluate product temperature during primary drying. MTM was conducted during primary drying using different vial loads, and the MTM product temperatures were compared with temperatures directly measured by thermocouples. To clarify the impact of freeze-drying load on MTM product temperatures, simulation of the MTM vapor pressure rise was performed, and the results were compared with the experimental results. The effect of product temperature heterogeneity in MTM product temperature determination was investigated by comparing the MTM product temperatures with directly measured thermocouple product temperatures in systems differing in temperature heterogeneity. Both the simulated and experimental results showed that at least 50 vials (5 mL) were needed to give sufficiently rapid pressure rise during the MTM data collection period (25 seconds) in the freeze dryer, to allow accurate determination of the product temperature. The product temperature is location dependent, with higher temperature for vials on the edge of the array and lower temperature for the vials in the center of the array. The product temperature heterogeneity is also dependent upon the freeze-drying conditions. In product temperature heterogeneous systems, MTM measures a temperature close to the coldest product temperature, even, if only a small fraction of the samples have the coldest product temperature. The MTM method is valid even at very low product temperature (−45°C).

Keywords: freeze-drying/lyophilization, manometric temperature measurement, process analytical technology for freeze drying, product temperature heterogeneity

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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