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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007 October; 8(4): 176.
Published online 2007 December 7. doi:  10.1208/pt0804102
PMCID: PMC2750688

The effect of neighboring amino acid residues and solution environment on the oxidative stability of tyrosine in small peptides


The effects of neighboring residues and formulation variables on tyrosine oxidation were investigated in model dipeptides (glysyl tyrosine, N-acetyl tyrosine, glutamyl tyrosine, and tyrosyl arginine) and tripeptide (lysyl tyrosyl lysine). The tyrosyl peptides were oxidized by light under alkaline conditions by a zero-order reaction. The rate of the photoreaction was dependent on tyrosyl pKa, which was perturbed by the presence of neighboring charged amino acid residues. The strength of light exposure, oxygen headspace, and the presence of cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonia chloride had a significant effect on the kinetics of tyrosyl photooxidation. Tyrosine and model tyrosyl peptides were also oxidized by hydrogen peroxide/metal ions at neutral pH. Metal-catalyzed oxidation followed first-order kinetics. Adjacent negatively charged amino acids accelerated tyrosine oxidation owing to affinity of the negative charges to metalions, whereas positively charged amino acid residues disfavored the reaction. The oxidation of tyrosine in peptides was greatly affected by the presence of adjacent charged residues, and the extent of the effect depended on the solution environment.

Keywords: Tyrosine, oxidation, kinetics, charge-effect, ionic strength, antioxidants

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Selected References

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