The purpose of these studies was to enhance mucosal and systemic antibody production in response to increased local residence time of a whole inactivated influenza virus administered as a dry powder nasal vaccine formulation. Spray-freeze-drying (SFD) particles suitable for nasal delivery were characterized for physico-chemical properties and stability. Mucoadhesive compounds (MA) were characterized for their effects on nasal residence time of vaccine powders in rats compared with published in vitro data and elicited immune responses. SFD particles (D50=26.9µm) were spherical with a specific surface area of 1.25 m2/g. Thermal analysis indicated SFD powders were amorphous and demonstrated improved stability with respect to liquid formulations under various storage conditions. In vitro physico-chemical studies and in vivo scintigraphic imaging experiments indicated sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethylcellulose-high molecular weight (CMC-HMW) powder formulations most significantly increased residence time in Brown Norway rats. Intramuscular delivery provided equivalent serum antibody titers to intranasal (IN) powder without MA, in the presence of CMC-HMW, SA, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC-HMW) after initial dosing and all formulations except IN powder with chitosan after boosting. IN liquid provided equivalent serum antibody titers to all IN powders after the initial vaccination and significantly greater serum antibody titers than IN powder with chitosan after boosting. Trends were consistent between residence time studies and immune response; however, no statistically significant differences between powder and liquid formulations were observed. It was concluded that enhanced serum and mucosal antibody responses were elicited by a dry powder nasal vaccine, specifically, administered in the presence of sodium alginate.
Keywords: intranasal, powder, influenza, vaccine, mucoadhesive, spray-freeze-drying