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The objective of this research was to optimize the processing parameters for poly(D,L-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microspheres of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and to mathematically relate the process parameters and properties of microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique. A 32 factorial design was employed to study the effect of the volume of the internal phase of the primary emulsion and the volume of the external phase of the secondary emulsion on yield, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. An increase in the volume of the internal phase of the primary emulsion resulted in a decrease in yield and encapsulation efficiency and an increase in particle size of microspheres. When the volume of the external phase of the secondary emulsion was increased, a decrease in yield, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency was observed. Microspheres with good batch-to-batch reproducibility could be produced. Scanning electron microscopic study indicated that microspheres existed as aggregates.