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The purpose of this study was to assess whether Sertolis cells would improve functional performance of homologous pancreatic islets within microcapsules. Purified rat Sertoli's cells were co-enveloped with islets in microcapsules that had been fabricated with alginic acid and poly-L-ornithine Confocal laser microscopy was used to determine any mitogenic effects of Sertoli's cells on islets ß-cells. Insulin secretion from islets, with or without Sertoli's cells, was examined and grafts of Sertoli's cells with islets in microcapsules into diabetic mice were carried out. Co-incubation of Sertoli's cells with islets resulted in a significant increase in the islet ß-cell mitotic rate, which was coupled with significantly higher insulin release under glucose stimulation, as compared to controls. Grafts of co-microencapsulated Sertoli's cells with islets resulted in prolongation of the achieved normoglycemia in the animals receiving Sertoli's cells with islets as compared to controls that received islets only. Sertoli's cells do promote mitogenic activities upon in vitro co-incubation with islets, whose in vitro functional and in vivo post-transplant consequences were evident. Sertoli's cells could, therefore, be comicroencapsulated with islets for transplantation in diabetic recipients.