PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of aapspharmspringer.comThis journalToc AlertsSubmit OnlineOpen Choice
 
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007 September; 8(3): E126–E132.
Published online 2007 August 24. doi:  10.1208/pt0803067
PMCID: PMC2750564

Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: Preparation and characterization

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a slight decrease in the loading efficiency. The surface morphology of the different bead formulations were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability studies over a 3-month period showed that glutaraldehyde reacted with some components ofArtemisia arborescens L essential oil, changing its composition. Calcium alginate beads showed an in vitro controlled release of the essential oil for the investigated 24 hours, while the use of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found not appropriate because of the interactions with azulene derivatives and the low degree of matrix cross-linkage.

Keywords: Essential oil, antiviral, controlled release, Artemisia arborescens, beads, sodium alginate

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (452K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
1. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol. 1999;86:985–990. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
2. Schnitzler P, Schon K, Reichling J. Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie. 2001;56:343–347. [PubMed]
3. Bouzouita N, Kachouri F, Hamdi M, Chaabouni MM. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavour Frag J. 2003;18:380–383. doi: 10.1002/ffj.1200. [Cross Ref]
4. Manohar V, Ingram C, Gray J, et al. Antifungal activities of origanum oil against Candida albicans. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001;228:111–117. doi: 10.1023/A:1013311632207. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
5. De M, Krishna DEA, Banerjee AB. Antimicrobial screening of some Indian spices. Phytother Res. 1999;13:616–618. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199911)13:7<616::AID-PTR475>3.0.CO;2-V. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
6. Valenti D, De Logu A, Loy G, et al. Liposome-incorporated Santolina insularis essential oil: Preparation, characterization and in vitro antiviral activity. J Liposome Res. 2001;11:73–90. doi: 10.1081/LPR-100103171. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
7. Sinico C, De Logu A, Lai F, et al. Liposomal incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil and in vitro antiviral activity. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005;59:161–168. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2004.06.005. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
8. Sherif A, Hall RG, el-Amamy M. Drugs, insecticides and other agents from Artemisia. Med Hypotheses. 1987;23:187–193. doi: 10.1016/0306-9877(87)90154-X. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
9. Ballero M, Poli F, Sacchetti G, Loi MC. Ethnobotanical research in the territory of Fluminimaggiore (southwestern Sardinia) Fitoterapia. 2001;72:788–801. doi: 10.1016/S0367-326X(01)00334-3. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
10. Becerra M, Baroli B, Fadda AM, Blanco-Mendez J, Gonzalez-Sisc MI. Lactose bioconversion by calcium-alginate immobilization ofKluyveromyces lactis cells. Enzyme Microb Tech. 2001;29:506–512. doi: 10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00409-4. [Cross Ref]
11. Sugawara S, Imai T, Otagiri M. The controlled release of prednisolone using alginate gel. Pharm Res. 1994;11:272–277. doi: 10.1023/A:1018963626248. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
12. Kikuchi A, Kawabuchi M, Watanabe A, Sugihara M, Sakurai Y, Okano T. Effect of Ca+-alginate gel dissolution on release of dextran with different molecular weights. J Control Release. 1999;58:21–28. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(98)00141-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
13. Cho NH, Seong SY, Chun KH, et al. Novel mucosal immunization with polysaccharide-protein conjugates entrapped alginate microspheres. J Control Release. 1998;53:215–224. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(97)00255-1. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
14. Gohel MC, Jani GK, Amin AF, Patel KV, Gupta SV. Application of classical experimental design for the development of theophylline microspheres. J Control Release. 1997;45:265–271. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(96)01592-1. [Cross Ref]
15. Albarghouthi M, Fara DA, Saleem M, El-Thaher T, Matalka K, Badwan A. Immobilization of antibodies on alginate-chitosan beads. Int J Pharm. 2000;206:23–34. doi: 10.1016/S0378-5173(00)00470-1. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
16. Sezer AD, Akbuga J. Release characteristic of chitosan treated alginate beads. I. Sustained release of macromolecular drug from chitosan alginate beads. J Microencapsul. 1999;16:195–203. doi: 10.1080/026520499289176. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
17. Sezer AD, Akbuga J. Release characteristic of chitosan treated alginate beads. II. Sustained release of low molecular drug from chitosan alginate beads. J Microencapsul. 1999;16:687–696. doi: 10.1080/026520499289176. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
18. Aynie I, Vauthier C, Chacun H, Fattal E, Couvreur P. Spongelike alginate nanoparticles as a new potential system for the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1999;9:301–312. [PubMed]
19. Lambert G, Fattal E, Couvreur P. Nanoparticulate systems for the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2001;47:99–112. doi: 10.1016/S0169-409X(00)00116-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
20. Adams RP. Identification of the Essential Oil Components by Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Carol Stream, IL: Allured Publishing Corp; 1995.
21. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST Scientific and Technical Databases [database online].The NIST Mass Spectral Search Program for the NIST/EPA/NIM Mass Spectral Library Version 1.7. 1999. Available at: http://www.nist.gov/srd/index.html. Accessed: November 5, 1999.
22. Sacco T, Frattini C, Bicchi C. Constituents of essential oil of Artemisia arborescens. Planta Med. 1983;47:49–51. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-969948. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
23. Kulkarni AR, Soppimatha KS, Aminabhavi TM, Daveb AM, Mehta MH. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked sodium alginate beads containing liquid pesticide for soil application. J Control Release. 2000;63:97–105. doi: 10.1016/S0168-3659(99)00176-5. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
24. Yeom CK, Lee KH. Characterization of sodium alginate membrane cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in pervaporation separation. J Appl Polym Sci. 1998;67:209–219. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19980110)67:2<209::AID-APP3>3.0.CO;2-Y. [Cross Ref]

Articles from AAPS PharmSciTech are provided here courtesy of American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists