Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of aapspharmspringer.comThis journalToc AlertsSubmit OnlineOpen Choice
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2004 December; 5(4): 138–144.
Published online 2004 October 8. doi:  10.1208/pt050469
PMCID: PMC2750494

Examination of aqueous oxidized cellulose dispersions as a potential drug carrier. I. Preparation and characterization of oxidized cellulose-phenylpropanolamine complexes


Partially neutralized aqueous dispersions of oxidized cellulose (OC) (COOH content 24.2%; degree of neutralization [DN] 0.22–0.44; solid content 14.4% wt/wt), a biocompatible biodegradable polymer, were prepared and their use to entrap an amine drug was demonstrated. Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA.HC1) was used as a model drug. OCAPPA complexes were prepared by adding the drug solution to the OC dispersion. Light microscopy, powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize hydrated and dried OC and the OC-PPA complexes. Drug loading and drug-loading efficiency were calculated from high-performance liquid chromatography. Light microscopy revealed the partially neutralized OC to exist as swollen fibers in the dispersion. The degree of swelling increased with increasing DN of the OC. All dispersions, irrespective of DN, showed a pseudo-plastic flow. The drug loading (12.6%–26.7%) and drug-loading efficiency (30%–48%) increased linearly with increasing DN and drug concentration. The PXRD of the OC-PPA complexes showed no diffraction peaks due to PPA, suggesting that the drug exists in the amorphous state. The FT-IR spectra of the complexes revealed the presence of an ionic linkage between OC and PPA. In conclusion, the results show that the aqueous OC dispersions can be used to molecularly entrap amine drugs to produce an OC-drug complex linked via an ionic linkage.

Keywords: oxidized cellulose, oxycellulose, oxidized cellulose dispersions, molecular scale drug entrapment, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, oxidized cellulose-phenylpropanolamine ionic complex

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (339K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
1. Langer RS, Wise DL, editors. Medical Applications of Controlled Release. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc; 1984.
2. Giunchedi P, Gavini E, Moretti MD, Pirisino G. Evaluation of alginate compressed matrices as prolonged drug delivery systems. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2000;1:E19–E19. doi: 10.1208/pt010319. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
3. Fernandez M, Alvarez-Fuentes J, Iruin A, Holgado MA. In vitro evaluation of a morphine polymeric complex: flowability behavior and dissolution study. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2004;5:E39–E39. doi: 10.1208/pt050339. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. Ashton WH, Moser, CE, inventors. Oxidized cellulose product and method for preparation of the same. US patent 3 364 200. January 16, 1968.
5. Johnson, Johnson . Surgical Absorbable Hemostate, PC-0506. Somerville, NJ: Johnson & Johnson Patient Care Inc; 1989.
6. Dineen P. Antibacterial activity of oxidized regenerated cellulose. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1976;142:481–486. [PubMed]
7. Tokunaga YKT, Naruse T. Antitum or effect of oxycellulose as a hemostatic during operation. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1998;13:437–445. doi: 10.1089/cbr.1998.13.437. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
8. Otterlei M, Erpvik G, Skjak-Braek G, Smidsord O, inventors. Diequatorially bonded b-1,4 polyuronates and use of same for cytokine stimulation. US patent 5 169 840. December 8, 1992.
9. Dol'berg EB, Yasnitskii BG, Shuteeva LN, Kovalev IP. Reaction of oxidized cellulose with medicinal compounds. II. Reaction of oxidized cellulose with isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Zh Prikl Khim (Leningrad) 1973;46:21–23.
10. Yasnitskii BG, Dol'berg EG. Bactericidal hemostatic. USSR patent 389:794. July 11, 1973.
11. Kaputskii FN, Bychkovskii PM, Yurkshtovich TL, Nedorezov VL. Study of photrin sorption by monocarboxycellulose. Colloid J. 1995;57:41–45.
12. Bychkovskii PM, Kaputakii FN, Yurkshtovich TL. Sorption of antitumor drugs by cellulose oxidized by nitrogen (IV) oxide. Ser Khim Navuk. 1993;3:41–45.
13. Zimatkina TTY, Zimatkin S, Kaputsky F. Antitumor activity of hydroxythiamine and methotrexate immobilized on monocarboxycellulose. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004;48:163–169. [PubMed]
14. Dol'berg EB, Shuteeva LN, Yasnitskii BG, Obolentseva GV, Khadzha YaI, Furmanov YuA. Certain aspects of interaction of oxidized cellulose with pharmaceutical compounds. III. synthesis and biological properties of the product of interaction of oxidized cellulose with kanamycin sulfate. Khim Farm Zh. 1974;8:23–26.
15. Kumar V, Yang T. HNO3/H3PO4−NaNO2 mediated oxidation of cellulose-preparation characterization of bioabsorbable oxidized cellulose in high yields and with different levels of oxidation. Carbohydr Polym. 2002;48:403–412. doi: 10.1016/S0144-8617(01)00290-9. [Cross Ref]
16. Davis MB, Peck GE, Banker GS. Preparation and stability of aqueous-based enteric polymer dispersions. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1986;12:1410–1418. doi: 10.3109/03639048609065869. [Cross Ref]
17. United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Oxidized cellulose and oxidized-regenerated cellulose. In:United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP 23/NF 18). Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc; 1995:318-319.
18. Martin A, Swarbrick J, Cammarata A. Physical Pharmacy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1983. Rheology; pp. 525–526.
19. United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride Extended Release Capsules. In:United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP 23/NF 18). Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc, 1995:2114-2115.
20. Katchalsky A, Spitnik P. Potentiometric titrations of polymethacrylic acid. J Polym Sci [B] 1947;2:342–342.
21. Chowdhury FH, Neale SM. Acid behavior of carboxylic derivatives of cellulose. Part II. oxycellulose. J Polym Sci Part A. 1963;1:2893–2904. doi: 10.1002/pol.1963.100010912. [Cross Ref]
22. Cesaro A, Delben F, Paoletti S. Thermodynamics of the proton dissociation of natural polyuronic acids. Int J Biol Macromol. 1990;12:170–176. doi: 10.1016/0141-8130(90)90027-8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
23. Kotz J, Phillipp B, Nehls I, Heinze TH, Klemm D. Acta Polym. 1990;41:333–337. doi: 10.1002/actp.1990.010410605. [Cross Ref]
24. Cantoni C, Zennaro F, Bertocchi C, Mariotti P, Rizo R. C6-oxidized cellulose: ion interactions with mono- and divalent cations. Biopolym. 1998;45:157–163. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0282(199802)45:2<157::AID-BIP6>3.0.CO;2-R. [Cross Ref]
25. Friedlander BI. An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Oxidation of Cellulose. Toronto, Canada: The University of Toronto Department of Chemical Engineering; 1966.
26. Takka S. Propranolol hydrochloride-anionic polymer binding interaction. Farmaco. 2003;58:1051–1056. doi: 10.1016/S0014-827X(03)00181-2. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Articles from AAPS PharmSciTech are provided here courtesy of American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists