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Partially neutralized aqueous dispersions of oxidized cellulose (OC) (COOH content 24.2%; degree of neutralization [DN] 0.22–0.44; solid content 14.4% wt/wt), a biocompatible biodegradable polymer, were prepared and their use to entrap an amine drug was demonstrated. Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA.HC1) was used as a model drug. OCAPPA complexes were prepared by adding the drug solution to the OC dispersion. Light microscopy, powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize hydrated and dried OC and the OC-PPA complexes. Drug loading and drug-loading efficiency were calculated from high-performance liquid chromatography. Light microscopy revealed the partially neutralized OC to exist as swollen fibers in the dispersion. The degree of swelling increased with increasing DN of the OC. All dispersions, irrespective of DN, showed a pseudo-plastic flow. The drug loading (12.6%–26.7%) and drug-loading efficiency (30%–48%) increased linearly with increasing DN and drug concentration. The PXRD of the OC-PPA complexes showed no diffraction peaks due to PPA, suggesting that the drug exists in the amorphous state. The FT-IR spectra of the complexes revealed the presence of an ionic linkage between OC and PPA. In conclusion, the results show that the aqueous OC dispersions can be used to molecularly entrap amine drugs to produce an OC-drug complex linked via an ionic linkage.