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The objective of the present study was to develop membrane-moderated transdermal systems of ampicillin sodium and to evaluate them with respect to various in vitro and in vivo parameters. The membrane-type transdermal systems were prepared using a drug with various antinucleant polymers— hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), cellulose acetate phthalate, chitosan, sodium alginate (SA), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose—in an ethanol: pH 4.7 buffer volatile system by the solvent evaporation technique with HPMC as the rate-controlling membrane for all the systems. The swelling properties of the polymers were studied, and drug-polymer interaction studies were performed. The patches were subjected to various physicochemical studies, in vitro release studies, permeation studies, and skin irritation studies. The best patch among the formulations was selected for further in vivo studies. Compared to the other patches, SA exhibited the highest moisture content at 16%; a 21% moisture uptake was found with MC. The release and permeation of the drug from the SA patch was found to be the maximum. The in vivo study of the SA patch exhibited a peak plasma concentration Cmax of 126 μg/mL at Tmax 4 hours. Hence, it can be concluded that hydrophilic ampicillin sodium can be developed as a transdermal delivery system with SA that is an alternative to intravenous administration and has minimal adverse effects.