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The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems, and applications of these systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.