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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007 June; 8(2): E61–E70.
Published online 2007 May 11. doi:  10.1208/pt0802035
PMCID: PMC2750374

Danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system: A potential application in emergency contraception by the oral route


This study explored the potential of β-cyclodextrin to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution of danazol, investigated a simple and less expensive method for preparation of a danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system, and explored the potential application of a danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system as a single-dose emergency contraceptive. Phase solubility analysis indicated formation of a first-order soluble complex with stability constant 972.03 M−1, while Job's plot affirmed 1[ratio]1 stoichiometry. The hyperchromic shift in the UV-Vis spectrum of danazol in the presence of β-cyclodextrin indicated solubilization capability of β-cyclodextrin for danazol. The extrinsic Cotton effect with a negative peak at 280.7 nm confirmed the inclusion of danazol in the asymmetric locus of β-cyclodextrin.1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis suggested that the protons of the steroidal skeleton of danazol display favorable interactions with the β-cyclodextrin cavity. The danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system was prepared by kneading, solution, freeze-drying, and milling methods. The extent of the enhancement of dissolution rate was found to be dependent on the preparation method. Dissolution studies showed a similar relative dissolution rate (2.85) of the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system prepared by the freeze-drying and milling (in the presence of 13% moisture) methods. In a mouse model, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system at 51.2 mg/kg (equivalent to a 400-mg human dose) showed 100% inhibition of implantation when given postcoitally. Moreover, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system is safe up to 2000 mg/kg in the mouse (15.52 g/70 kg human) as a single oral dose. Thus, the danazol-β-cyclodextrin binary system could serve as a new therapeutic application: an oral emergency contraceptive at a physiologically acceptable single dose.

Keywords: Danazol, β-cyclodextrin, solubility, dissolution studies, anti-implantation activity

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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