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A multiple-unit-type oral floating dosage form (FDF) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was developed to prolong gastric residence time, target stomach cancer, and increase drug bioavailability. The floating bead formulations were prepared by dispersing 5-FU together with calcium carbonate into a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution and then dripping the dispersion into an acidified solution of calcium chloride. Calcium alginate beads were formed, as alginate undergoes ionotropic gelation by calcium ions and carbon dioxide develops from the reaction of carbonate salts with acid. The evolving gas permeated through the alginate matrix, leaving gas bubbles or pores, which provided the beads buoyancy. The prepared beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, image, surface topography, buoyancy, and in vitro release. The formulations were optimized for different weight ratios of gas-forming agent and sodium alginate. The beads containing higher amounts of calcium carbonate demonstrated instantaneous, complete, and excellent floating ability over a period of 24 hours. The optimized formulation was subjected to in vivo antitumor studies to check the therapeutic efficacy of the floating dosage forms containing 5-FU against benzo(a)pyrene-induced stomach tumors in albino female mice (Balb/C strain). The multiple-bead FDF was found to reduce the tumor incidence in mice by 74%, while the conventional tablet dosage form reduced this incidence by only 25%. Results indicate that FDF performed significantly better than the simple tablet dosage form.