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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006 December; 7(4): E105–E111.
Published online 2014 March 30. doi:  10.1208/pt070497
PMCID: PMC2750334

Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: Heat and mass transfer measurement


This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient “error” is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control.

Keywords: freeze drying lyophilization, manometric temperature measurement, process analytical technology for freeze drying, vial heat transfer coefficient

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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