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This study investigated the influence of the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose materials (microcrystalline cellulose [MCC]) on some powder properties and the compression behavior of these materials. The DP was determined by measurements of viscosity (H). The weight average of molecular weight and the weight average of the different DPs were investigated after MCC was modified to cellulose tricarbanilate by light scattering measurements. The DP showed a remarkable influence on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose materials and, consequently, on the behavior of these materials during compression. MCC types with a high DP value showed greater water absorption than the types with a low DP value. No relevant relationship between the crystallinity index and the DP could be observed. DP 190 showed lower compactibility and compressibility parameters than DP 244 and 299. No significant differences could be observed between DP 244 and 299 when the same particle size fraction was compressed. Furthermore, the compressibility was increased by increasing the DP.