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AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006 June; 7(2): E160–E166.
Published online 2006 June 16. doi:  10.1208/pt070254
PMCID: PMC2750281

Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: Effect of process factors on caffeine content


The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 33 factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120°C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120°C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120°C.

Keywords: Dry extract, convective, caffeine, capillary gas chromatography, spouted bed

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Selected References

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