Demographic characteristics of participants
Socio-demographic data of the participating physicians working at hospitals of the three ownership types are illustrated in Table . Of the total number of participants in this study, 102 were female and 101 were male physicians with an average age of 34 years (SD = 6.54 years) and an average of 4 years (SD = 1.9 years) of working experience as a physician.
Socio-demographic characteristics of the participating physicians, n = 203
Job demands and hospital ownership
The assumption of the first hypothesis conjectured that there is an influence on how physicians evaluate their job demands depending on the type of hospital ownership. Table displays the mean values of job demands for each hospital and the ANOVA results.
Psychosocial working conditions: means, univariate tests and covariate F-tests between the hospital types
Physicians in private for-profit hospitals perceived significantly fewer job demands than those in public and private nonprofit hospitals (F2,200 = 4.24, p = .01).
Emotional demands and demands on suppressing emotions were rated up to the same extent between all three forms of ownership.
Job resources and hospital ownership
There were no significant results supporting that opportunities for career advancement, degrees of freedom at work and influence at work differ between the three ownership types (see Table ).
Physicians working at private for-profit and nonprofit hospitals scored significantly higher for sense of community than did physicians at public hospitals (F2,200 = 5.58, p = .004). By contrast, social support was perceived higher at public and private nonprofit hospitals than at private for-profit hospitals; however, these differences did not reach significance. Quality of leadership was rated significantly lower in private for-profit hospitals than in public or private nonprofit hospitals (F2,200 = 4.19, p = .01). Receiving feedback on job performance also differed significantly (F2,200 = 3.63, p = .02).
To summarize, a portion of the evidence supports hypothesis 2: some job resources differ significantly between ownerships.
Job satisfaction and hospital ownership
Table compares the mean values of the responses of employees in public and private hospitals on job satisfaction. It revealed that job satisfaction tended to be highest at the private nonprofit hospitals. But the ANOVA-test indicated that the means did not differ significantly between the different hospital ownership types (F2,200 = 1.32, p = .26).
Psychosocial working conditions, personal resources and job satisfaction
In Additional file 1
, correlations between job satisfaction and job demands, job resources and personal resources are illustrated. In accordance with the corresponding hypotheses, this analysis has demonstrated negative correlations between job demands and job satisfaction (r = -.19 - r = -.42, p < .01). Strong positive correlations were found between job outcome and job resources (r = .24 - r = .52, p < .01). Positive correlations were also found between job satisfaction and self- efficacy (r = .35, p < .01) as well as between job satisfaction and optimism (r = .41, p < .01).
The regression model in Table displays the ratios of variance and regression beta weights using job satisfaction as the dependent variable.
Multiple hierarchical regressions (Ratios of variance and standardized beta weights of the last step in the regression)
Socio-demographic factors (age, gender and years of experience) accounted for a marginal portion of the variance (4%). Thereby, years of experience represented a significantly negative beta weight (β = -.14, p < .05). In the second step, personal resources accounted for an additional 20% of the variance. In the third step, job demands made up an additional 13% of the variance. Quantitative demands revealed a significantly negative beta weight (β = -.29, p < .001).
In the final step, included job resources accounted for an additional 22% of variance. Three job resources (possibilities for development, sense of community, and quality of leadership) revealed significantly positive beta weights (see Table ).
In total, the model explained 59% of the observed variance in job satisfaction.