Author affiliations: Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (Shannon M. Lynch); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands (Alina Vrieling, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (Jay H. Lubin, Julie Mendelsohn, Patricia Hartge, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, Stephen J. Chanock, Laufey Amundadottir, Demetrius Albanes, Robert N. Hoover, Gilles Thomas, Kevin Jacobs, Geoffrey S. Tobias, Kai Yu); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Peter Kraft, Dimitrios Trichopoulos); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany (Federico Canzian); Information Management Service, Rockville, Maryland (Emily Steplowski); Department of Environmental Medicine and Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (Alan A. Arlsan, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquette); Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota Prevention Research Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Myron Gross); Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (Kathy Helzlsouer); Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (Eric J. Jacobs, Alpa V. Patel); Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (Andrea LaCroix, Charles Kooperberg); Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Gloria Petersen); Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu); MRC Centre for Nutrition and Cancer, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom (Sheila A. Bingham); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (Paolo Boffetta, Weimin Ye); Inserm (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) and Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France (Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault); George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention, Hagerstown, Maryland (Sandra Clipp); Bioinformed Consulting Services, Gaithersburg, Maryland (Kevin Jacobs); Core Genotyping Facility, Advanced Technology Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland (Kevin Jacobs); Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (Karen C. Johnson); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (Juhua Luo); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (Catherine Messina); Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute ISPO, Florence, Italy (Domenico Palli); Division of Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary Care, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom (Elio Riboli); Public Health Directorate, Health and Health Care Services Council, Asturias, Spain (Laudina Rodriguez Suarez); Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (Anne Tjønneland); Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California (Elissa Tong); Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece (Dimitrios Trichopoulos); and Department of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland (Jarmo Virtamo).
This research was supported by the Extramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute. The New York University Women's Health Study is supported by National Cancer Institute research grants (R01CA034588, R01CA098661, P30CA016087) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center grant (ES000260). The Women's Health Initiative is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute through contracts (N01WH22110, 24152, 32100-2, 32105-6, 32108-9, 32111-13, 32115, 32118-32119, 32122, 42107-26, 42129-32, and 44221). The Shanghai Men's Health Study was supported by the National Cancer Institute extramural research grant (R01 CA82729). The Shanghai Women's Health Study was supported by the National Cancer Institute extramural research grant (R01 CA70867) and, partially for biologic sample collection, by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute (Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics). The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was supported by contracts from the National Cancer Institute (University of Colorado Denver, NO1-CN-25514, Georgetown University NO1-CN-25522, Pacific Health Research Institute NO1-CN-25515, Henry Ford Health System NO1-CN-25512, University of Minnesota, NO1-CN-25513, Washington University NO1-CN-25516, University of Pittsburgh NO1-CN-25511, University of Utah NO1-CN-25524, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation NO1-CN-25518, University of Alabama at Birmingham NO1-CN-75022, Westat, Inc. NO1-CN-25476, University of California, Los Angeles NO1-CN-25404). The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study was supported by funding provided by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute and US Public Health Service contracts (N01-CN-45165, N01-CN-45165, N01-RC-45035, N01-RC-37004). The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was supported by the European Commission: Public Health and Consumer Protection Directorate 1993–2004; Research Directorate-General 2005; Ligue contre le Cancer, Societé 3M, Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) (France); German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Research Center, Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany); Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health, the participating regional governments and institutions (Spain); Cancer Research UK, Medical Research Council, Stroke Association, British Heart Foundation, Department of Health, Food Standards Agency, the Wellcome Trust (United Kingdom); Greek Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, Hellenic Health Foundation and Stavros Niarchos Foundation (Greece); Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC) (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports, Dutch Prevention Funds, LK Research Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) (the Netherlands); Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Scientific Council, Regional Government of Skane and Västerbotten (Sweden). CLUE II was supported by the National Institute on Aging (5U01AG018033) and National Cancer Institute (CA105069, CA73790). The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort is supported by the American Cancer Society.
Writing committee members: Shannon M. Lynch, Alina Vrieling, Jay H. Lubin, Peter Kraft, Julie B. Mendelsohn, Patricia Hartge, Federico Canzian, Emily Steplowski, and H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; senior author: Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon.
Poster presentation at the American Congress of Epidemiology meeting, September 14–16, 2008, Tucson, Arizona.
Conflict of interest: none declared.