Among the 126 people with Time 2 data, 28 had incomplete data and were not included in the analyses. More complete data were available on African Americans and participants with complete data tended to have lower fruit and vegetable purchase outcome expectancies. There were no other differences on demographics or the new variables. In general the sample was aged 38.8 years with 2.4 children living at home, mostly women (76.2%), ethnic minority (82.6%), high school graduates or less education (51.5%), and overweight (61.1%).
Home Fruit Availability
Four of the new variables were bivariately related with home fruit availability. Respondents with higher BMIs did not have more fruit available at home. Only highest attained household education was significantly inversely related to home fruit availability in the first step model (see the ). Neither social desirability nor BMI were significantly related to home fruit availability after controlling for demographics in the second step model. Only social support was a predictor in the third step model and accounted for 16% of the variance in home fruit availability ().
Table 1 Results from Block regression analyses of the availability of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables in the home on purchasing and comparative purchasing outcome expectancy for fruit, juice, and vegetables; pantry management of fruit, juice, and vegetables (more ...)
Home 100% Juice Availability
Home 100% juice availability was significantly bivariately related with many of the variables, including BMI. Only highest attained household education was significantly negatively predictive of 100% juice availability in the first step model (). BMI group was significantly related in the second step of the model testing process. BMI and home 100% juice pantry management practices were significantly related in the third step and the model accounted for 18% of the variability.
Home Vegetable Availability
Home vegetable availability was significantly bivariately related to most of the other variables. None of the demographic variables were related to home vegetable availability in the first step of the model (). BMI was predictive of home vegetable availability after controlling for the demographic variables (), and BMI, social support, and shopping practices were substantially predictive of home vegetable availability, accounting for 17% of the variability in Model 3 ().
Although most of these variables were bivariately correlated with a corresponding indicator of home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability, social support for purchasing was the primary consistent predictor for home fruit and vegetable availability, even after controlling for demographic factors, social desirability of response, and BMI. Social support has been a predictor of other health-related behaviors (12
) and thus offers promise of better understanding home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability. The importance of the new variables was emphasized by the substantial increase in predictiveness of the multivariate models when the new variables were added.
The patterns of relationships were consistent with the proposed conceptual model of interrelationships (). The small sample likely precluded verifying all the proposed relationships. Further research with larger samples will be necessary to test the proposed relationships.
Model of influences on home fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and consumption.
A limitation of our research is the small sample size due to the measure creation and validation purposes of the sample. It is possible that more variables would be predictive if sufficient statistical power were available to detect those relationships. It is also possible that interactions existed among some of the variables in predicting home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability; however, no interaction terms were tested due to the low statistical power. Other limitations include possible differences in participating vs nonparticipating stores, not being generalizeable beyond the city of Houston, TX, and the focus on total home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability, not by fresh, frozen, or canned separately.