1. Cummins S. Neighbourhood food environment and diet: time for improved conceptual models? Prev Med. 2007;44(3):196–197. [PubMed]
2. Wrigley N. "Food deserts" in British cities: policy context and research priorities. Urban Stud 2002;39:2029–2040.
3. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and supermarket accessibility in metropolitan Detroit. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(4):660–667. [PubMed] 4. Cummins S, Macintyre S. "Food deserts" — evidence and assumption in health policy making. BMJ. 2002;325(7361):436–438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
5. Dalton E, Ehrlich S, Flores M, Heberlein E, Niemeyer M. Policy and management paper: food availability in Allegheny County, PA. Pittsburgh (PA): The Heinz School Review;
6. Sexton DE. Comparing the cost of food to blacks and to whites: a survey. J Mark 1971;35:40–46.
8. Whelan A, Wrigley N, Warm D, Cannings E. Life in a "food desert.". Urban Stud 2002;39:2083–2100.
9. Macintyre S. Deprivation amplification revisited; or is it always true that poorer places have poorer access to resources for healthy diets and physical activity? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007;4:32. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Block JP, Scribner RA, DeSalvo KB. Fast food, race/ethnicity, and income: a geographic analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(3):211–217. [PubMed] 12. Lewis LB, Sloane DC, Nascimento LM, Diamant AL, Guinyard JJ, Yancey AK, et al. African Americans' access to healthy food options in south Los Angeles restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(4):668–673. [PubMed] 13. Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux, A, Poole C. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(1):23–29. [PubMed] 14. Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents' diets: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(11):1761–1767. [PubMed] 15. Latham J, Moffat T. Determinants of variation in food cost and availability in 2 socioeconomically contrasting neighbourhoods of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Health Place. 2007;13(1):273–287. [PubMed] 16. Powell LM, Slater S, Mirtcheva D, Boa Y, Chaloupka FJ. Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med. 2007;44(3):189–195. [PubMed]
17. Marcus BH. Similarity of ghetto and nonghetto food costs. J Mark Res 1969;6:368.
18. National Commission on Food Marketing. Prices charged in stores in low and high income areas of 6 large cities. Special Studies in Food Marketing 1966:121–144.
20. Green M. The poor pay more for less. Part 1: grocery shopping. New York (NY): City of New York, Department of Consumer Affairs; 1991.
22. Moore LV, Diez Roux., AV Associations of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(2):325–331. [PubMed] 24. Block D, Kouba J. A comparison of the availability and affordability of a market basket in 2 communities in the Chicago area. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9:837–845. [PubMed] 25. Horowitz CR, Colson KA, Hebert PL, Lancaster K. Barriers to buying healthy foods for people with diabetes: evidence of environmental disparities. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1549–1554. [PubMed] 26. Sloane DC, Diamant AL, Lewis LB, Yancey AK, Flynn G, Nascimento LM, et al. Improving the nutritional resource environment for healthy living through community-based participatory research. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(7):568–575. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
27. Alwitt LF, Donley TD. Retail stores in poor urban neighborhoods. J Consum Aff 1997;31:139–164.
28. Chung C, Myers SL., Jr Do the poor pay more for food? An analysis of grocery store availability and food price disparities. J Consum Aff 1999;33:276–296.
29. Morris PM, Neuhauser L, Campbell C. Food security in rural America. A study of the availability and costs of food. J Nutr Educ 1992;24:S52–S58.
30. Helling A, Sawicki DS. Race and residential accessibility to shopping and services. Housing Policy Debate 2003;14:69–101.
32. Smith D. Food deserts in the Willamette: a study of food access in Lane County, Oregon [master's thesis] Eugene (OR): University of Oregon; 2003.
33. White M, Bunting J, Williams E, Raybould S, Adamson A, Mathers JC. Do "food deserts" exist? A multilevel geographical analysis of the relationship between retail food access, socioeconomic position and dietary intake. Newcastle-on-Tyne (UK): University of Newcastle; 2003.
34. Cummins S, Macintyre S. The location of food stores in urban areas: a case study in Glasgow. Br Food J 1999;101:545–553.
35. Apparicio P, Micic Z, Shearmur R. Évaluation de l'accessibilité aux supermarchés d'alimentation à Montréal. Insitut National de la Recherche Scientifique. Insitut National de la Recherche Scientifique; 2004. [Accessed February 26, 2009]. http://www.ucs.inrs.ca/pdf/inedit2004_03.pdf. 36. Apparicio P, Cloutier MS, Shearmur R. The case of Montreal's missing food deserts: evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets. Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:4. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
37. Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Amrhein C. Food deserts in the prairies? Supermarket accessibility and neighbourhood need in Edmonton, Canada. Prof Geogr 2006;58:307–326.
38. Winkler E, Turrell G, Patterson C. Does living in a disadvantaged area entail limited opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in terms of price, availability, and variety? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. Health Place. 2006;12(4):741–748. [PubMed] 39. Pearce J, Witten K, Bartie P. Neighbourhoods and health: a GIS approach to measuring community resource accessibility. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(5):389–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 40. O'Dwyer LA, Coveney J. Scoping supermarket availability and accessibility by socio-economic status in Adelaide. Health Promot J Austr. 2006;17(3):240–246. [PubMed]
41. Hall BF. Neighborhood differences in retail food stores: income versus race and age of population. Econ Geogr 1983;59:282–295.
42. Alcaly RE, Klevorick AK. Food prices in relation to income levels in New York City. J Bus 1971;44:380–397.
44. Captain OB, McIntire MS. Cost and quality of food in poverty and non-poverty urban areas. J Am Diet Assoc. 1969;55(6):569–571. [PubMed] 45. Jetter KM, Cassady DL. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(1):38–44. [PubMed]
46. MacDonald JM, Nelson PE. Do the poor still pay more? Food price variations in large metropolitan areas. J Urban Econ 1991;30:344–359.
47. Crockett EG, Clancy KL, Bowering J. Comparing the cost of a Thrifty Food Plan market basket in 3 areas of New York State. J Nutr Educ 1992;24:71S–78S.
48. Hayes LR. Are prices higher for the poor in New York City? J Consumer Policy 2000;23:127–152.
49. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit, Michigan. Ethn Dis. 2006;16(1):275–280. [PubMed] 50. Glanz K, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in stores (NEMS-S): development and validation. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(4):282–289. [PubMed]
51. Ambrose DM. Retail grocery pricing: inner city, suburban, and rural comparisons. J Bus 1979;52:95–102.
53. Sallis JF, Nader R, Atkins J. San Diego surveyed for heart healthy foods and exercise facilities. Public Health Rep. 1986;101:216–218. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 54. Sooman A, Macintyre S, Anderson A. Scotland's health — a more difficult challenge for some? The price and availability of healthy foods in socially contrasting localities in the west of Scotland. Health Bull 1993;51(5):276–284. [PubMed]
55. Cummins S, Macintyre S. A systematic study of an urban foodscape: the price and availability of food in greater Glasgow. Urban Stud 2002;39:2115–2130.
56. Mooney C. Cost and availability of healthy food choices in a London health district. J Hum Nutr Diet 1990;3:111–120.
58. Travers KD, Cogdon A, McDonald W, Wright C, Anderson B, Maclean DR. Availability and cost of heart healthy dietary changes in Nova Scotia. J Can Diet Assoc 1997;58:176–183.
59. Lawn J, Robbins H, Hill F. Food affordability in air stage communities. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57(Suppl 1):182–188. [PubMed] 60. Winkler E, Turrell G, Patterson C. Does living in a disadvantaged area mean fewer opportunities to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables in the area? Findings from the Brisbane Food Study. Health Place. 2006;12(3):306–319. [PubMed] 61. Lee AJ, Darcy AM, Leonard D, Groos AD, Stubbs CO, Lowson SK, et al. Food availability, cost disparity and improvement in relation to accessibility and remoteness in Queensland. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;26(3):266–272. [PubMed]
62. Stronks K, vande Mheen Dike, Looman CWN, Mackenbach JP. Behavioural and structural factors in the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health: an empirical analysis. Sociol Health Illn 1996;18:653–674.
63. Pucher J, Renne JL. Socioeconomics of urban travel: evidence from the 2001 NHTS. Transportation Quarterly 2003:49–77.
64. Morland K, Diez Roux, A, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(4):333–339. [PubMed] 65. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Hollis-Neely T, Campbell RT, Holmes N, Watkins G, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in African Americans: income and store characteristics. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29(1):1–9. [PubMed] 66. Rose D, Richards R. Food store access and household fruit and vegetable use among participants in the US Food Stamp Program. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(8):1081–1088. [PubMed] 67. Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Evenson KR. Self-reported overweight and obesity are not associated with concern about enough food among adults in New York and Louisiana. Prev Med. 2004;38(2):175–181. [PubMed] 68. Cheadle A, Psaty BM, Curry S, Wagner E, Diehr P, Koepsell T, et al. Community-level comparisons between the grocery store environment and individual dietary practices. Prev Med. 1991;20(2):250–261. [PubMed] 69. Drewnowski A, Darmon N. Food choices and diet costs: an economic analysis. J Nutr. 2005;135(4):900–904. [PubMed] 70. Hamelin AM, Beaudry M, Habicht JP. Characterization of household food insecurity in Quebec: food and feelings. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54(1):119–132. [PubMed] 71. Sturm R, Datar A. Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food prices and food outlet density. Public Health. 2005;119(12):1059–1068. [PubMed] 72. Cummins S, Macintyre S. Food environments and obesity: neighbourhood or nation? Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(1):100–104. [PubMed] 73. Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, et al. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies: identification of key food items. Public Health Nutr. 2007;10(12):1440–1447. [PubMed]