Home | About | Journals | Submit | Contact Us | Français |

**|**HHS Author Manuscripts**|**PMC2719022

Formats

Article sections

- Abstract
- Introduction
- Potential functional form
- Learning the potential parameters
- Results
- Final remarks
- References

Authors

Related links

Proteins. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 September 1.

Published in final edited form as:

PMCID: PMC2719022

NIHMSID: NIHMS96097

A coarse grained potential for protein simulations and fold ranking is presented. The potential is based on a two-point model of individual amino acids and a specific implementation of hydrogen bonding. Parameters are determined for distance dependent pair interactions, pseudo bonds, angles, and torsions. A scaling factor for a hydrogen bonding term is also determined. Iterative sampling for 4867 proteins reproduces distributions of internal coordinates and distances observed in the Protein Data Bank. The adjustment of the potential and re-sampling are in the spirit of the generalized ensemble approach. No native structure information (e.g. secondary structure) is used in the calculation of the potential, or in the simulation of a particular protein. The potential is subject to two tests: (i) simulations of 956 globular proteins in the neighborhood of their native folds (these proteins were not used in the training set), and (ii) discrimination between native and decoy structures for 2470 proteins with 305,000 decoys, and the “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset. In the first test, 58% of tested proteins stay within 5 Å from the native fold in Molecular Dynamics simulations of more than twenty nanoseconds using the new potential. The potential is also useful in differentiating between correct and approximate folds providing significant signal for structure prediction algorithms. Sampling with the potential consistently regenerates the distribution of distances and internal coordinates it learned. Nevertheless, during Molecular Dynamics simulations structures are found that reproduce the learned distributions but are far from the native fold.

Hierarchical description of complex systems motivates the creation of coarse grained or reduced models with two goals in mind: (i) capture essential features of the system with simplified models that can be solved exactly (or almost exactly), and (ii) describe quantitatively properties of complex systems with a reduced representation computed from detailed experiment or theory. Examples for coarse grained models of type (i) are the HP model on a square lattice [1], or the Elastic Network Model for protein flexibility [2, 3]. Examples for type (ii) models are detailed folding simulations on lattices [4], or coarse description of membranes [5]. Approaches of type (ii) attempt to significantly reduce the computational cost and at the same time maintain a high level of accuracy that approaches the results of more detailed models.

The potential we describe in the present paper belongs to class (ii). Our aim was to develop an empirical force field with a reduced set of variables for physical simulations of proteins in the neighborhood of the native states. Simulations at the coarse level can be done more efficiently than atomically detailed calculations. Indeed, we illustrate in the present manuscript test simulations with accumulated time length of tens of microseconds that require only 12 hours on 500 computer cores. A nanosecond simulation of a medium size solvated protein (200 amino acids) can take a few days. The computational saving for simulations is about 3 orders of magnitude. We expect that equilibrium distributions generated by simulations with the designed potential will show characteristics of atomically detailed simulations. In parallel we require that the potential will recognize native folds of proteins as the lowest energy minimum when compared with an extensive set of “decoy” structures.

Our potential is purely empirical and the experimental observables which we use to fit the potential parameters are native structures of proteins determined by experimental techniques and deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [6]. These observables are clearly incomplete and a correct energy function should reproduce also the thermodynamics and kinetics of the system.

In the last twenty years many energy functions were estimated from empirical structures of proteins using the methodologies initiated by the following studies: inverse Boltzmann formula (statistical potentials) [7], memory associated Hamiltonians [8], Z score optimization [9], and Mathematical Programming [10]. Learning potentials from empirical structures should be contrasted with physically based energy functions. The usual design of a physical energy relies on experiments (and/or ab-initio calculations) on small model systems [11-13]. From a learning view-point, an advantage of physical potentials is the separation of types of input (the data to learn)) from types of output (the data to predict). On the other hand, potentials that are learned from empirical structures recognize correct folds with significantly less computational resources compared to physical energies, allowing for more extensive exploration of conformation space. The number of degrees of freedom is smaller by a factor between five and ten even without explicit solvent.

The approach described in this paper is an extension of the usual implementation of statistical potentials. We therefore start with a brief discussion of statistical potentials. After the introduction of statistical potentials by Miyazawa and Jernigan [7], a number of groups, including for example, Sippl [14], Skolnick et al. [15], Betancourt and Thirumalai [16], Bryant and Lawrence [17], Hinds and Levitt [18] and others more recently [19-22] continue to develop this concept and to examine the basic algorithm, functional form, and the data sets.

The basic concept of statistical potentials is similar in spirit to that of the potential of mean force [23] but important differences remain. Let the complete coordinate vector in continuous space representing the system be *X*, and the subset of coordinates that we use to describe the protein be, y_{i}_{=1,…,n}, for example the set of backbone torsions or distances between amino acids. The number of reduced degrees of freedom is *n*, while the number of total number of degrees of freedom in the system is *N*. If the probability of a conformation, *p*(*X*), is known we can determine the probability of a variable of interest, *y _{i}*, by direct integration

The first assumption made in the derivation of Statistical Potentials (SP) is that the Protein Data Bank (PDB) provides a Boltzmann sample of conformations, therefore a PMF can be estimated from the observed frequencies of certain degrees of freedom ${V}_{i}\left({y}_{i}\right)=-\frac{1}{\beta}\text{log}\left(f\left({y}_{i}\right)\right)$ [7].

The second assumption made in the calculations of SP is the representation of the total potential as a sum of PMF terms. An “energy” of the system is written as *U*(*y*_{1}, *y*_{2},…, *y _{n}*)=

The problem with this assumption is easy to illustrate using the definition of the PMF. The “energy” in the subspace of *y _{i}*

$$p\left({y}_{i}\right)=\int exp\left[-\beta \left({V}_{1}\left({y}_{1}\right)+\dots +{V}_{i}\left({y}_{i}\right)+\dots +{V}_{n}\left({y}_{n}\right)\right)\right]\cdot \delta \left({y}_{i}-{\overline{y}}_{i}\left(X\right)\right)J\left(Y,X\right)d\Gamma \prod _{j}d{y}_{j},$$

where we plugged in the integral the usual form of the statistical potential, *d*Γ is a volume element of the remaining coordinates not in .*y _{i}*.'s, and

Instead of the statistical potential we can write a new effective energy that is used in the sampling
${V}_{\mathrm{eff}}\left({y}_{1},\dots ,{y}_{n}\right)=\text{\u2211}_{i}{V}_{i}\left({y}_{i}\right)-\left(1/\beta \right)\text{log}\left[J\left(X,Y\right)\right]$. If the Jacobian was a constant then we would trivially recover the probability *p*(*y _{i}*) exp(−

Besides the basic difference between PMF and SP pointed above, writing the overall potential as a sum of PMFs introduces additional approximations. The first is the factorization of the overall probability to a product of probabilities. It suggests lack of correlations between the *y _{i}*'s. The use of multiple internal coordinate probabilities [24-26]

SP most frequently aim at the fold recognition problem; i.e., given a set of plausible structures that are all protein-like, how to choose a configuration that is the closest to the native fold. It typically does not address the problem of direct and extensive sampling of configuration space with a potential according to a pre-determined weight (e.g. canonical). In the present manuscript we generate a potential that is consistent with both (MD simulations and fold recognition). Not surprisingly new problems emerge. One practical problem is that the sampling of coordinate space in the PDB is incomplete. As a result MD simulations with straightforward statistical potentials do not produce protein-like conformations.

The problem of generating a single potential, which is optimal for the task of fold recognition and of MD simulations, can be solved by additional potential terms that take care of interactions poorly sampled in the PDB. The combination of the statistical potential and the new terms is not obvious. Once these terms are added to “traditional” statistical potentials the simulations with the adjusted energy function no longer (necessarily) reproduce the distributions of the *y _{i}*'s extracted from the PDB. The present manuscript is addressing this particular problem by adopting an algorithm from condensed phase simulations which is a variant of the generalized ensemble approach [27]. It generates iteratively a potential consistent with the PDB distributions of internal coordinates and the supplements discussed above.

The resulting potential is significantly more complex than the usual form of statistical potentials. It is also continuous and differentiable. We emphasize that even with these advances the paper does not address the two basic approximations of statistical potentials (factorization of the probability and transferability of parameters). It is therefore not surprising that significant deviations from native folds are still observed in simulations for a significant number of proteins, even if the design requirements are satisfied. Despite the drawbacks, the performance we obtain with the final form of the potential is adequate for the usual fold recognition (and it was used in CASP8 http://predictioncenter.org/casp8/index.cgi), and also for Molecular Dynamics simulations. Another continuous and differentiable potential that learns its parameters from the PDB with a different technique and can be used for energy minimization and simulations was introduced recently [28]. Bridging potential parameters from small molecule data to macromolecular modeling was also pursued recently by Z score optimization [29]. These potentials are however designed for all atom models.

In this section we present the functional form and the parameterization of a new coarse grained potential which we call FREADY (a potential for Fold REcognition And DYnamics). The starting functional form and parameterization of the potential were motivated by the simple physical model of the group of Thirumalai [30] and its enhancements by the group of Head-Gordon [31, 32]. However, as we look in more detail into the conformation data available in the Protein Data Bank and examine structures generated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations (using coarse grained potentials), a significantly more complex form becomes necessary.

The number of degrees of freedom in the complex form remains relatively small, only two points per amino acid are used - the position of the Cα atom and the side chain center of mass (CM). It was also decided to keep the functional form independent of any information about the native structure (e.g. secondary structure or native contacts); thus enabling unbiased dynamical studies of biophysical processes where the information about the native conformation is not available or well defined (e.g. large conformational transitions).

The potential employs the functional form (1.1) that includes bond, angular, and torsional terms as well as non-bonded interaction and explicit hydrogen bonding. Solvent is treated implicitly since the parameters of the potential are learnt from statistics of solvated protein. By insisting that solvent induced structures (most structures in the PDB are reasonably well solvated) are reproduced in the simulations we incorporate some solvent effects.

$$\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{c}U(X)=\text{\u2211}_{i\in \mathrm{bonds}}{U}_{B}({r}_{i},{\tau}_{Bi})+\text{\u2211}_{i\in \mathrm{angles}}{U}_{A}({\theta}_{i},{\tau}_{Ai})+\text{\u2211}_{i\in \mathrm{torsions}}{U}_{T}({\varphi}_{i},{\tau}_{\varphi i})\\ \phantom{\rule{2.5em}{0ex}}+\text{\u2211}_{i,j>i}{U}_{NB}({r}_{ij},{\tau}_{i},{\tau}_{j})+\text{\u2211}_{i\in \mathrm{dipole\; centers}}{U}_{HB}(i)\end{array}\end{array}$$

(1.1)

We denote by *τ* the type of interactions (for example atom type, or the type of a bond between two atoms). Typically, bond and angle interactions in other force fields (atomic or coarse grained) are modeled by quadratic terms with a single minimum; however these functions do not give acceptable fits to the statistics of bond lengths and angles we extract from the PDB structures (Figure 1) and later from MD. The reason is that the internal degrees of freedom of side chains and backbone that are removed in the coarse representation have internal structure with multiple stable states that is reflected in multiple minima of the coarse variables. This observation is especially true for covalent terms that include a side chain atom but is also correct for angles of three sequential backbone atoms (Cα). Therefore, the bond energy as well as the angle energy terms of FREADY, are described with a single, a double, or a triple well potential (see Eq. (1.2) and (1.3)). The multiple well potentials we consider in this work are

Description of terms entering the calculation of the backbone hydrogen bonding term *U*_{HB}(*i, j*). The angle *α*_{ij} is defined as an angle between the bonds *C*_{αi} − _{αi}_{+1} and *C*_{αj} − _{αj}_{+1}.

$${U}_{B/A}(x,\tau )=\{\begin{array}{ll}{k}_{\tau}{(x-{x}_{\tau})}^{2}& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\tau \in \text{terms with a single well}\\ C\left({k}_{\tau 1}{(x-{x}_{\tau 1})}^{2},{k}_{\tau 2}{(x-{x}_{\tau 2})}^{2}+{\alpha}_{\tau},{\beta}_{\tau}\right)& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\tau \in \text{terms with a double well}\\ C\left\{C\left({k}_{\tau 1}{(x-{x}_{\tau 1})}^{2},{k}_{\tau 2}{(x-{x}_{\tau 2})}^{2}+{\alpha}_{\tau},{\beta}_{\tau}\right),{k}_{\tau 3}{(x-{x}_{\tau 3})}^{2}+{{\alpha}^{\prime}}_{\tau},{{\beta}^{\prime}}_{\tau}\right\}& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\tau \in \text{terms with a single well}\end{array}$$

(1.2)

$$C({U}_{1},{U}_{2},\beta )=\frac{1}{2}\left({U}_{1}+{U}_{2}-\sqrt{{\left({U}_{1}-{U}_{2}\right)}^{2}+{\beta}^{2}}\right),$$

(1.3)

where *x* denotes a bond length or an angle size and all variables with *τ* in the subscript are potential parameters to be determined. The parameters *x _{τ}* are equilibrium positions,

The current model has 22 different types of bonds and 58 different types of angles. There are 19 different bonds between Cα and CM particles for each of the different amino acid (GLY does not have a CM particle), one bond type for the typical Cα-Cα backbone bond, one for a bond between Cα of a proline in a cis-isomer and a preceding Cα atom. The last bond type is for modeling the disulfide bridges between cysteine residues.

The 58 angle types are built from the following three templates Cα_{i-1}-Cα_{i}-Cα_{i+1}, CM_{i}-Cα_{i}-Cα_{i-1}, and CM_{i}-Cα_{i}-Cα_{i+1} for each different type of a central (Cα_{i}) atom with the exception of GLY. The 20 types of angle templates Cα_{i-1}-Cα_{i}-Cα_{i+1} are all very similar and could be reduced to a single backbone angle type. Since subtle differences may have remained we did not merge all these terms in the first version of the potential.

The torsional terms *U _{T}*(,

$${U}_{T}\left(\varphi ,{\tau}_{\varphi}\right)=\text{\u2211}_{n=1}^{5}{C}_{\tau ,n}cos(n\varphi )+{S}_{\tau ,n}sin(n\varphi )$$

(1.4)

We have used five expansion terms for the periodic function. This number of terms is probably unnecessary, however, in the present version of the potential they do not harm. It is still possible that subtle effects are captured by the high order terms and therefore we left these terms “as are” and did not attempt to simplify them further. There are almost 4 · 20^{2} different types of torsional/dihedral angles: A torsion (the angle between two planes) is defined by four points. All torsions in our model are along Cα_{i}-Cα_{i+1} backbone bonds (we do not consider torsions related to CYS-CYS bonds). The type of a torsional interaction, *τ _{}*, is determined by the residue types of the central Cα pairs and by the particle types (Cα or CM) of the two remaining points. For a given Cα pair there can be up to four different dihedral angles present (Cα

The function *U _{NB}*(

$${U}_{NB}(r,{\tau}_{1},{\tau}_{2})=\{\begin{array}{ll}{U}_{NB}^{0}(r)+{A}_{{\tau}_{1}{\tau}_{2}}{r}^{-6}+{B}_{{\tau}_{1}{\tau}_{2}}{r}^{-2}+{C}_{{\tau}_{1}{\tau}_{2}}& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}r<4.2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\u02da}{\text{A}}\\ {U}_{NB}^{0}(r)+\text{\u2211}_{i=0}^{9}{a}_{{\tau}_{1}{\tau}_{2}i}{r}^{i}& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}r\in \langle 4.2\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\u02da}{\text{A}},13.5\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\u02da}{\text{A}}\rangle \\ 0& \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}r>13.5\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\u02da}{\text{A}}\end{array}$$

(1.5)

$${U}_{NB}^{0}(r)=\{\begin{array}{ll}0.6\cdot {10}^{7}{r}^{-12}-3\cdot {10}^{3}{r}^{-6}& \text{between CM}\u2010\text{CM particles}\\ 0.6\cdot {10}^{6}{r}^{-12}& \text{otherwise}\end{array}$$

(1.6)

We do not consider a pair of particles for non-bonded interactions if they are separated by one or two bonds; if they are separated by three bonds (1-4 interaction) we scale the non-bonded interaction down by a factor *f*_{14}. S-S bonds between CYS residues are not considered for these exceptions. If a scaling factor *f*_{14} = 1 is used the non-bonded energy distorts the local geometry when CM_{i} and CM_{i+1} are a strongly repulsive pair. At the other limit, if *f*_{14} = 0, some pairs of neighboring sidechains may overlap. The value of *f*_{14} was set to 0.3 after some experimentation and was found to reproduce well the local structure.

Backbone hydrogen bonding potential between residues *i* and *j*,*U _{HB}*(

$$\begin{array}{l}{U}_{HB}(i,j)=\frac{{A}_{{\tau}_{i}{\tau}_{j}}}{{r}_{ij}^{3}}{f}_{ij}-\frac{{B}_{{\tau}_{i}{\tau}_{j}}}{{r}_{ij}^{6}}\left[4+{f}_{ij}^{2}-{g}_{ij}\right]+{\epsilon}_{{\tau}_{i}{\tau}_{j}}\left[{q}_{ij}^{12}-2{q}_{ij}^{6}\right]\\ {q}_{ij}=\frac{{r}_{{\tau}_{i}{\tau}_{j}}^{0}}{{r}_{ij}}{f}_{ij}=cos{\alpha}_{ij}-3cos{\beta}_{ij}cos{\gamma}_{ij}{g}_{ij}=3({cos}^{2}{\beta}_{ij}+{cos}^{2}{\gamma}_{ij})\end{array},$$

(1.7)

where *r _{ij}*,

$$F(x)=\{\begin{array}{cc}\hfill 1\hfill & \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x>0.9\hfill \\ \hfill \left(x-0.3\right)/0.6\hfill & \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x\in \left[0.3,0.9\right]\hfill \\ \hfill 0\hfill & \text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x<0.3\hfill \end{array}$$

The optimal single bond energy is then compared to the optimal two-hydrogen-bond energy and the option with the lowest energy is used

$${U}_{HB}(i)=\text{min}\left[H{b}_{ij}^{\left(\text{min}\right)},H{b}_{\mathrm{ijk}}^{\left(\text{min}\right)}\right].$$

(1.8)

As discussed in the introduction the most common approach to derive parameters of a statistical potential is based on the assumption of mutual independence of different interactions in the protein. Based on statistics collected from experimental structures the potential function along a degree of freedom *q* is obtained by Boltzmann inversion formula

$$U(q)=-{k}_{B}Tln\left(\frac{{P}_{\mathrm{native}}(q)}{{P}_{\mathrm{reference}}(q)}\right),$$

(1.9)

where *k _{B}* is the Boltzmann constant,

We bridge the learning of potentials for fold recognition and potentials for Molecular Dynamics simulations by iterative procedure to recover the native distributions of relevant degrees of freedom *P _{native}*(

$${U}_{i+1}(q)={U}_{i}(q)+{k}_{B}Tln\left(\frac{{P}_{i}(q)}{{P}_{\mathrm{native}}(q)}\right).$$

(1.10)

We reiterated the calculations of the potential and Molecular Dynamics simulations a number of times until the correction to the potential parameters was negligible, in practice this happens in about 20 iterations. It is similar in spirit to a generalized ensemble approach that was used extensively by others (see for instance [41]). Reith and co-workers proposed this procedure to derive coarse grained potentials for polymers. Atomically detailed simulations were used in their work to define *P _{native}*(

It is important to emphasize the difference of equation (1.10) from the usual statistical potential approach [7] which is a one step calculation from probability to potential. The iterative form of equation (1.10) allows us to add external terms (external to the probabilities determined from the PDB) and use the iterations to merge the different terms such that the original probabilities will be recovered in the canonical sampling. Such a potential refinement scheme is new and is not part of the “traditional” statistical potential approach. The final distributions *P*(*q _{j}*) that we obtain are not identically equal to the native PDB distributions. However, the deviations are within the usual statistical errors of this type of calculation (Figures 2 and and4)4) and are due to the discrete representation of the distributions and the finite size of the training set.

(**a**) **left**: Fit of the angle interaction term defined by Cα _{i-1}, Cα _{i},CM_{i} for i-th residue being a TRP obtained by Boltzmann's inversion of the native distribution (gray) and the analytical fit to a double-well function (black, dashed). **...**

Radial distribution functions between pair of particles (**a**) LEU-Cα and LYS-CM (**b**) ASP-Cα and LYS-CM. The solid line corresponds to the distribution in the native structures, gray-dashed line depicts the distribution obtained after the **...**

Nevertheless, one must keep in mind that even with the iterations the potential is approximate. First (as discussed above) the factorization is an approximate procedure and only a general *P*(*q*_{1},…*q _{l}*) is exact. Second, it is assumed that the potential is transferable, i.e. that we can have one coarse grained potential to describe many proteins. Third, we assume that the iterative process of running Molecular Dynamics trajectories and adjusting the potential as described above converges to a stable solution (there is no proof of convergence). With the above mentioned approximations, it is perhaps no surprise that the procedure we finally adopt to compute all the potential parameters involved considerable heuristic, and that the resulting potential is not perfect: (i) it does not recognize native folds as the lowest energy in all cases, and (ii) MD simulations sampled with significant probability (for some proteins) structures that are far from the native fold.

As a training set, we used a set of PDB protein structures that forms the prediction database for our modeling program LOOPP (http://www.loopp.org, for a recent publication see [42]). It includes 9513 native structures that have at most 70% sequence identity between any two proteins in the set. This is higher sequence similarity than similarity used in other studies of statistical potential (about 20%). Our data provides reasonably dense sampling in sequence space. At least for fold recognition (after all, we wish to predict protein structure from a sequence) we argue that folds with larger sequence capacity (the number of sequences that are compatible with a given fold [43]) should have a higher weight than folds that capture only a few sequences. This weight might be lost if the selection emphasizes structural diversity instead of sequence variations. Another (pragmatic) reason that led us to broaden the set of structures and sequences is that of statistics. We need more proteins in order to obtain reliable statistics to fit our complex differentiable interaction terms (e.g. we need to sample at least 100 times every pair of neighboring residues along the backbone to fit reliably each torsional interaction).

The training set is further refined by removing membrane proteins [44, 45] and proteins complexed with polynucleotides [46]. All occurrences of selenomethionines (MSE) were replaced by regular MET residues and pyroglutamic acids (PCAs) were removed from the C-terminals. Proteins that contain other non-standard amino acids were removed from the training set. We used structures that correspond to the biological molecules (remarks BIOMT 350 in the PDB files) rather than the units determined by crystallography. In the training process we limited ourselves to globular proteins, therefore proteins with radius of gyration 15% larger than expected were not considered. The formula for expected radius of gyration of globular proteins
$Rg=0.395{N}^{\stackrel{3}{\phantom{\rule{0ex}{.6}}}/\underset{5}{\phantom{\rule[--.8]{0ex}{0ex}}}}+7.257$ was taken from [47, 48]. Lastly, since MD simulations for larger proteins take longer time only proteins with at most 750 residues are used in the training process. The final training set contains 4867 proteins. All MD simulations were performed in the MOIL molecular modeling package [49] (http://clsb.ices.utexas.edu/prebuilt/) and the final version of FREADY is fully integrated with other functionalities of the package such as energy minimization or visualization. MD calculations conducted with FREADY potential are about 10^{3} faster than an all-atom simulation in explicit solvation. The converged set of FREADY potential parameters can be found in the file moil.mop/CG.PROP of the MOIL distribution package or is also available in an extended form in the tar file http://clsb.ices.utexas.edu/research/group/fready.tgz.

In practice, distributions *P _{i}*(

The parameters *A _{τiτj}*,

We can use the hydrogen bonding functional form developed for UNRES since the coarsening in FREADY is similar to that in UNRES model. UNRES, same as FREADY, represents each residue by two beads. A difference is that in UNRES positions of the peptide centers are considered explicitly and positions of Cα atoms are implicitly reconstructed. In FREADY, we explicitly model the Cα particles and the centers of the hydrogen bonding groups are assumed to be in the center of the Cα-Cα bonds. Conceptually UNRES relies on chemical physics principles, while the main drive of the FREADY model is the requirement that hydrogen bond distribution of MD simulations will mimic the hydrogen bond distribution observed in statistics of experimentally determined protein structures. The use of a hydrogen bond term is also a nice illustration of mixing different potential terms (from different sources) with the iterative sampling.

Fitting of *U _{NB}*(

For numerical reasons the functions *U _{NB}*(

The iterative algorithm described in the previous section converged to a fixed set of parameters for the FREADY potential after about 20 iterations. Covalent local interaction terms such as bond lengths converge more rapidly and stabilize after a few (up to three) iterations. Figure 2 shows typical converged angular and torsional interactions. Comparisons of the native distributions to those obtained from the final training iteration are also shown. In Figure 3 we illustrate how a non-bonded interaction term evolves during the training process and Figure 4 illustrates how the radial distribution functions between these pairs of residues evolved from the initial to the final iteration. Overall individual distributions of the variables extracted from the PDB are accurately represented by the converged distributions of the final iteration. The small deviations from the PDB distribution that are observed in Figure 4 are typical.

Iterative adjustments to the non-bonded interaction term between (**a**) LEU particle Cα and LYS particle CM; (**b**) ASP particle Cα and LYS particle CM. The interactions are evolving during the training in the order gray-solid (1. iteration), **...**

The quality of the final set of FREADY parameters was verified by two different tests: a) a stability test of the native protein conformations during MD simulations and b) a decoy recognition task. The stability of native conformations in FREADY potential was tested on native structures of proteins independent of the training set. The set used for the iterative training was based on the non-redundant set of protein structures covering the shapes available in PDB as of 6/28/2005. The test set for FREADY potential includes non-redundant representation of the protein structures deposited to the PDB between 6/28/2005 and 6/13/2006 [42].

The test set was filtered, as was done for the training set. We remove membrane proteins, RNA/DNA complexes, and PCAs (pyroglutamic acids). Group type MSEs (selenomethionines) are replaced by MET. Proteins with other non-standard amino acids were removed. Only proteins with typical radius of gyration were kept). Further on, we reduced the test set to single chain proteins without any breaks in the backbone and limited the size of each protein to up to 500 residues. After all these constraints are met the test set consists of 956 native structures. A 21 ns MD simulation of each structure from the test set (driven by FREADY potential function) was performed. Every simulation begins from the native conformation by a short (200 steps) conjugate gradient minimization. The simulations are initiated with 300 ps linear heating from 1 K to 300 K followed by 20.7 ns constant temperature simulation (controlled by velocity scaling).

Figure 5 shows a distribution of the RMSD of the final structure of each MD simulation and the corresponding native conformation. Similarly Figure 6 shows distribution of the TM-score [51], which is measure of structural similarity that scales between 0 and 1. It is calculated as

The distribution of RMSD from the native fold after 10 ns (gray) or 21 ns (black, transparent) long MD simulation initiated from the native conformation.

The distribution of TM-score between the native fold and structures obtained by 10 ns (gray) or 21 ns long (black, transparent) long MD simulation starting from the native conformation.

$$\text{TM}-\text{score}=\text{max}\left[\frac{1}{L}\text{\u2211}_{i=1}^{L}\frac{1}{1+{\left(\frac{{d}_{i}}{{d}_{0}}\right)}^{2}}\right],$$

(1.11)

where *L* is the protein length, *d _{i}* is the distance between

The equilibrated distributions of internal degrees of freedom after 21 ns of MD are in good agreement with the distributions obtained from the native folds. Nevertheless, as shown on Figure 5 and and6,6, even when the target distributions of internal coordinates are preserved there are structures that diverge significantly from the native fold (RMSD larger than 10 Å or TM-score less than 0.4). This implies that the functional form of the potential chosen in the present manuscript (i.e. sum of local, pairwise terms and backbone HB) is not sufficient to fix the average structure in the neighborhood of the native fold during room temperature simulations.

In Figure 7 we show results for three representative medium sized structures. Two of these proteins (1ido, 1a3k) remain relatively close to the native structure (RMSD of 2.33 Å and 3.42 Å). The third protein shown (1ge6) is an example in which the MD simulation drives the structure away from the native structure (9.87 Å). Figure 8 shows a comparison of mean square displacements of Cα particles during the last 10 ns of the test simulation with experimental crystallographic B-factors. The mean square displacements are in weak agreement with the experimental values. The location of the large fluctuations along the sequence seems to agree with experiment, but not the amplitudes. There are several residues in loop regions and close to either N or C terminals that have significantly higher displacements than those implied by B-factors. The same figure also shows that many of these overly-flexible parts of the structures are predicted as flexible also by Anisotropic Network Model [52]. Crystal packing might influence the reduced flexibility in some of these regions. Hence, the B factor may not represent the properties of an isolated protein molecule in solution.

Behavior of three proteins 1a3k (an α/β protein, light gray), 1ido (an β protein, black), and 1ge6 (an α protein, dark gray) during the testing MD simulation driven by FREADY (21 ns). The figure shows from the top to the **...**

Structural alignments of the final MD structures with the native conformations for these three proteins are given in Figure 9 - Figure 11. We have not found any correlation between stability of the native conformations in FREADY potential and the secondary structure content or composition (data not shown). We initially attempted to train FREADY without an explicit hydrogen bonding term. However, MD simulations of the training set driven by a potential trained without hydrogen bonding term resulted in the average deviation of 6.37 Å RMSD from the native structures compared to 4.95 Å obtained with a potential trained with explicit backbone hydrogen bonding term. The reduced accuracy in our initial attempt was caused mainly by weak stability of native *β* sheets elements.

Alignment of native structure (blue) of 1ge6 (an α protein) and the conformation obtained after 21 ns of MD simulation (green). The RMSD is 9.87Å.

Better stability of native folds (3.92 Å from native in average) was reported recently by Minary and Levitt [53]. They used a 3-bead model based on an all-atomistic statistical potential [54]. There are two major differences in their approach and results presented here. More extensive conformational search with a combination of parallel tempering and equi-energy Monte Carlo was performed in their work, whereas we only ran long MD simulations. Another important difference is in the number of degrees of freedom. In the work of Minary and Levitt secondary structure elements are fixed and the loop torsional angles are considered as the only degrees of freedom. Fixing the secondary structures in the simulations that uses the FREADY potential reduces the distance (RMSD) between the simulated structures and the native conformations in the 21 ns MD simulations to 3.04 Å in RMSD. The similarity increases to 0.78 measured with the TM-score.

The FREADY potential was also tested on native and near-native recognition from a set of decoy structures. Two datasets of decoys used in this study are “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset [55] and the set of decoys used for the training of LOOPP [42]. Both sets consist of a collection of different models generated as possible conformations for protein sequences with known structures (targets). “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset includes 34 targets, each target having from 500 to 2414 different models including the native structure. In the LOOPP dataset, there are 2470 protein targets, each having from 30 to 200 models. There is no overlap between the FREADY training set and the set of targets used in the LOOPP testing dataset.

In the decoy recognition task a set of different structures with an identical sequence (i.e. the sequence of the target) is provided. The task is to score the structure closest to the native (or the native itself, if present in the input set) as the model with the lowest energy. To use FREADY for this purpose only the sum of the non-bonded interactions and the torsional energies was used. By construction, the structures of the decoys have reasonable covalent geometries. Moreover, the local interaction terms of the bond and angular stretching are quite sensitive to local modifications in the structure and do not provide significant information about the overall quality of the three-dimensional shape. Therefore bond and angle terms of FREADY are not helpful in differentiating between native and decoy shapes.

Another type of interaction with a limited contribution is the short-range repulsion. The non-bonded interaction term as learned from MD simulations has steep repulsion for short distances (see Figure 3) which is not desirable for a structure recognition task (a single close contact can significantly increase the energy of an overall good model), thus the non-bonded interaction term *U _{NB}* for short distances was reduced through a logarithmic transformation to yield an adjusted value
${U}_{NB}^{\prime}$

$${U}_{NB}^{\prime}=0.6+\frac{log({U}_{NB}+0.4)}{10}\phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\text{if}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{U}_{NB}>0.6.$$

(1.12)

The last remaining term, the backbone hydrogen bonding, was not useful in recognition, probably because decoys in the datasets were generated with methods that optimize backbone hydrogen bonds.

FREADY performs similarly (see Table 1) to other statistical potentials on “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset. Only OPUS-PSP potential [21], which uses more elaborate representation of side chain packing, performs significantly better than FREADY. The detailed performance of FREADY on “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset is provided in Table 2 and the contribution of different energy terms to the recognition in threading experiments is shown in Table 3. Seven targets from this dataset (1ctf, 1r69, 2cro, 1nkl, 1trl, 1dtk, 1shf) were present in the FREADY training set.

Performance of FREADY potential on “Decoys ‘R’ Us” dataset. The table lists for each target its PDB code, size of the decoy set, rank of the native structure in the set of decoys based on FREADY energy evaluation and Z-score **...**

Contributions of different energy terms to the recognition of native structures in Decoys R us dataset. For each energy term the number of native structures recognize as the lowest energy structure by that term is given in the first column and the average **...**

On the LOOPP dataset we tested the recognition of “native like targets,” since statistical potentials tend to perform well in distinguishing the native structure from non-native ones but often fail in recognition of “close to native” conformations. Thus, in the case of LOOPP dataset, we ask how well does FREADY recognize native-like models (RMSD-wise) from other structures. FREADY ranks the model with the lowest RMSD as the lowest energy structure (within the top 5 lowest energy structures) in 50% (73%) of all 2470 targets. While clearly not perfect, FREADY provides a useful signal for model selection that when combined with other signals leads to more accurate prediction. FREADY signals were used in the LOOPP server during CASP8 exercise [67].

It turns out that FREADY performs better in recognition of structures obtained by X-ray crystallography than those obtained by NMR. The rate of best model recognition for targets solved by NMR drops to 31% (compared to 64% for structures solved by X-ray). The performance of FREADY on a subset of LOOPP dataset is shown in Figure 12. This set contains 338 targets that are single chain proteins, solved by X-ray crystallography, not forming biological complexes with other proteins or RNA/DNA, and are not membrane proteins. The correlation coefficient for this set between *E*/*L*−(*E*/*L*)* _{native}* and the RMSD from the native conformation is 0.68. As seen in the figure, only several models have lower scores than the native (negative values on the figure) and most of the native-like models (low RMSD values) do not have high scores.

In the present manuscript we discussed a coarse grained potential that was learned using a mix of machine learning arguments and computational statistical mechanics. The potential was tested and illustrated to perform adequately at the two extreme limits of structural biology: (i) maintaining the structure in the neighborhood of the native fold in Molecular Dynamics simulations, and (ii) effectiveness in threading experiments. The significantly reduced number of degrees of freedom enables more comprehensive sampling for longer times. The simpler model (compared to all atom representation) is also effective in screening efficiently a large number of candidates to the correct fold. On the other hand, we do not expect the potential to work in domains it was not tuned for (e.g. protein folding).

We have addressed algorithmically two significant limitations of statistical potentials, that is, (i) how to learn a statistical potential that recovers experimental statistics in canonical simulations and (ii) how to effectively combine statistical potentials with other energy terms that are necessary when comprehensive sampling is desired. Specifically in the present study we illustrate that the addition of hard cores and hydrogen bonding potentials is straightforward once generalized ensemble approach is applied. While hard cores could be added by statistical means [68], the iterative procedure allows for easy combination of different energy terms, potentially from different sources calibrated against the PDB distribution.

Perhaps the most intriguing observations made in the present study are the limitations of the internal coordinate representation and of the assumption of potential transferability. We typically assume that a potential can be represented by pair interactions between amino acids (keeping the covalent geometry intact). The pair interaction is assumed to be transferable from a protein to a protein. Mathematical programming studies illustrated however that the parameters of such a potential do not have a feasible solution on typical protein-like decoy sets [64, 69, 70]. It is intriguing that a related conclusion is reached in the present manuscript from a different perspective and for more general functional form.

Further studies of plausible functional forms of potentials, building on innovative work on modeling many-body potentials [24, 26, 71], with comprehensive sampling and iterative refinement of potential parameters are of considerable interest.

This research was supported by NIH grant 5R01GM067823-07 to Ron Elber.

1. Dill KA. Theory for the folding and stability of globular proteins. Biochemistry. 1985;24(6):1501–1509. [PubMed]

2. Tirion MM. Large Amplitude Elastic Motions in Proteins from a Single-Parameter, Atomic Analysis. Physical Review Letters. 1996;771905(9) [PubMed]

3. Haliloglu T, Bahar I, Erman B. Gaussian Dynamics of Folded Proteins. Physical Review Letters. 1997;79(16):3090.

4. Kolinski A, Skolnick J. Lattice models of protein folding, dynamics and thermodynamics. Austin, Texas: Landes Company and Chapman Hill; 1996.

5. Marrink SJ, et al. The MARTINI Force Field: Coarse Grained Model for Biomolecular Simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111(27):7812–7824. [PubMed]

6. Berman HM, et al. The Protein Data Bank. Nucl Acids Res. 2000;28(1):235–242. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

7. Miyazawa S, Jernigan RL. Estimation of effective interresidue contact energies from protein crystal structures: quasi-chemical approximation. Macromolecules. 1985;18(3):534–552.

8. Goldstein RA, Lutheyschulten ZA, Wolynes PG. Protein tertiary structure recognition using optimized hamiltonians with local interactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1992;89(19):9029–9033. [PubMed]

9. Luthy R, Bowie JU, Eisenberg D. Assesments of protein models with 3-dimensional profiles. Nature. 1992;356(6364):83–85. [PubMed]

10. Maiorov VN, Crippen GM. Contact potential that recognizes the correct folding of globular-proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1992;227(3):876–888. [PubMed]

11. Rizzo RC, Jorgensen WL. OPLS all-atom model for amines: Resolution of the amine hydration problem. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1999;121(20):4827–4836.

12. Lagant P, et al. Increasing normal modes analysis accuracy: The SPASIBA spectroscopic force field introduced into the CHARMM program. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2004;108(18):4019–4029.

13. Wang JM, Kollman PA. Automatic parameterization of force field by systematic search and genetic algorithms. Journal of Computational Chemistry. 2001;22(12):1219–1228.

14. Sippl MJ. Calculation of conformational ensembles from potentials of mena force: An approach to the knowledge-based prediction of local structures in globular proteins. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1990;213(4):859–883. [PubMed]

15. Skolnick J, et al. Derivation and testing of pair potentials for protein folding. When is the quasichemical approximation correct? Protein Science. 1997;6(3):676–688. [PubMed]

16. Betancourt MR, Thirumalai D. Pair potentials for protein folding: choice of reference states and sensitivity of predicted native states to variations in the interaction schemes. Protein Sci. 1999;8(2):361–369. [PubMed]

17. Bryant SH, Lawrence CE. An empirical energy function for threading protein-sequence through the folding motif. Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics. 1993;16(1):92–112. [PubMed]

18. Hinds DA, Levitt M. Exploring conformational space with a simple lattice model for protein-structure. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1994;243(4):668–682. [PubMed]

19. Xia Y, et al. Ab initio construction of protein tertiary structures using a hierarchical approach. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2000;300(1):171–185. [PubMed]

20. Buchete NV, Straub JE, Thirumalai D. Anisotropic coarse-grained statistical potentials improve the ability to identify nativelike protein structures. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2003;118(16):7658–7671.

21. Lu M, Dousis AD, Ma J. OPUS-PSP: An Orientation-dependent Statistical All-atom Potential Derived from Side-chain Packing. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2008;376(1):288–301. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

22. Lu H, Skolnick J. A distance-dependent atomic knowledge-based potential for improved protein structure selection. Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics. 2001;44(3):223–232. [PubMed]

23. Hill TL. Statistical Mechanics: Principles and selected applications. New York: Dover; 1956.

24. Feng YP, Kloczkowski A, Jernigan RL. Four-body contact potentials derived from two protein datasets to discriminate native structures from decoys. Proteins-Structure Function and Bioinformatics. 2007;68(1):57–66. [PubMed]

25. Buchete NV, Straub JE, Thirumalai D. Orientational potentials extracted from protein structures improve native fold recognition. Protein Science. 2004;13(4):862–874. [PubMed]

26. Ngan SC, Inouye MT, Samudrala R. A knowledge-based scoring function based on residue triplets for protein structure prediction. Protein Engineering Design & Selection. 2006;19(5):187–193. [PubMed]

27. Kinnear BS, Jarrold MF, Hansmann UHE. All-atom generalized-ensemble simulations of small proteins. Elsevier Science Inc; 2004. [PubMed]

28. Amir EAD, Kalisman N, Keasar C. Differentiable, multi-dimensional, knowledge-based energy terms for torsion angle probabilities and propensities. Proteins-Structure Function and Bioinformatics. 2008;72(1):62–73. [PubMed]

29. Jagielska A, Wroblewska L, Skolnick J. Protein model refinement using an optimized physics-based all-atom force field. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;105(24):8268–8273. [PubMed]

30. Honeycutt JD, Thirumalai D. The nature of folded states of globular proteins. Biopolymers. 1992;32(6):695–709. [PubMed]

31. Brown S, Head-Gordon T. Intermediates and the folding of proteins L and G. Protein Sci. 2004;13(4):958–970. [PubMed]

32. Yap EH, Fawzi NL, Head-Gordon T. A coarse-grained alpha-carbon protein model with anisotropic hydrogen-bonding. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 2008;70(3):626–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

33. Aaqvist J, Warshel A. Simulation of enzyme reactions using valence bond force fields and other hybrid quantum/classical approaches. Chem Rev. 1993;93(7):2523–2544.

34. Maragakis P, Karplus M. Large Amplitude Conformational Change in Proteins Explored with a Plastic Network Model: Adenylate Kinase. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2005;352(4):807–822. [PubMed]

35. Okazaki Ki, et al. Multiple-basin energy landscapes for large-amplitude conformational motions of proteins: Structure-based molecular dynamics simulations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006;103(32):11844–11849. [PubMed]

36. Liwo A, et al. Parametrization of Backbone-Electrostatic and Multibody Contributions to the UNRES Force Field for Protein-Structure Prediction from Ab Initio Energy Surfaces of Model Systems. J Phys Chem B. 2004;108(27):9421–9438.

37. Liwo A, et al. Calculation of protein backbone geometry from {alpha}-carbon coordinates based on peptide-group dipole alignment. Protein Sci. 1993;2(10):1697–1714. [PubMed]

38. Zhou H, Zhou Y. Distance-scaled, finite ideal-gas reference state improves structure-derived potentials of mean force for structure selection and stability prediction. Protein Sci. 2002;11(11):2714–2726. [PubMed]

39. Reith D, Pütz M, Müller-Plathe F. Deriving effective mesoscale potentials from atomistic simulations. Journal of Computational Chemistry. 2003;24(13):1624–1636. [PubMed]

40. Sun Q, Ghosh J, Faller R. In: Coarse-Graining of Condensed Phase and Biomolecular Systems. Voth G, editor. Boca Raton FL: CRC press; 2008.

41. Hansmann UHE, Okamoto Y, Eisenmenger F. Molecular dynamics, Langevin and hydrid Monte Carlo simulations in a multicanonical ensemble. Chemical Physics Letters. 1996;259(34):321–330.

42. Vallat BK, Pillardy J, Elber R. A template-finding algorithm and a comprehensive benchmark for homology modeling of proteins. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 2008;72(3):910–928. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

43. Meyerguz L, et al. Computational analysis of sequence selection mechanisms. Structure. 2004;12(4):547–557. [PubMed]

44. Tusnady GE, Dosztanyi Z, Simon I. Transmembrane proteins in the Protein Data Bank: identification and classification. Bioinformatics. 2004;20(17):2964–2972. [PubMed]

45. Jayasinghe S, Hristova K, White SH. MPtopo: A database of membrane protein topology. Protein Sci. 2001;10(2):455–458. [PubMed]

46. Spirin S, et al. NPIDB: a Database of Nucleic Acids Protein Interactions. Bioinformatics. 2007;23(23):3247–3248. [PubMed]

47. Narang P, et al. A computational pathway for bracketing native-like structures for small alpha helical globular proteins. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2005;7:2364–2375. [PubMed]

48. Jayaram B, et al. Bhageerath: an energy based web enabled computer software suite for limiting the search space of tertiary structures of small globular proteins. Nucl Acids Res. 2006;34(21):6195–6204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

49. Elber R, et al. MOIL: A program for simulations of macromolecules. Computer Physics Communications. 1995;91(13):159–189.

50. Liwo A, et al. Prediction of protein conformation on the basis of a search for compact structures: Test on avian pancreatic polypeptide. Protein Sci. 1993;2(10):1715–1731. [PubMed]

51. Zhang Y, Skolnick J. Scoring function for automated assessment of protein structure template quality. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 2004;57(4):702–710. [PubMed]

52. Eyal E, Yang LW, Bahar I. Anisotropic network model: systematic evaluation and a new web interface. Bioinformatics. 2006;22(21):2619–2627. [PubMed]

53. Minary P, Levitt M. Probing Protein Fold Space with a Simplified Model. Journal of Molecular Biology. 2008;375(4):920–933. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

54. Summa CM, Levitt M. Near-native structure refinement using in vacuo energy minimization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007;104(9):3177–3182. [PubMed]

55. Samudrala R, Levitt M. Decoys ‘R’ Us: a database of incorrect conformations to improve protein structure prediction [In Process Citation] Protein Sci. 2000;9(7):1399–1401. [PubMed]

56. Lin MS, Fawzi NL, Head-Gordon T. Hydrophobic Potential of Mean Force as a Solvation Function for Protein Structure Prediction. Structure. 2007;15(6):727–740. [PubMed]

57. Shen My, Sali A. Statistical potential for assessment and prediction of protein structures. Protein Sci. 2006;15(11):2507–2524. [PubMed]

58. McConkey BJ, Sobolev V, Edelman M. Discrimination of native protein structures using atom-atom contact scoring. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003;100(6):3215–3220. [PubMed]

59. Miyazawa S, Jernigan RL. How effective for fold recognition is a potential of mean force that includes relative orientations between contacting residues in proteins? The Journal of Chemical Physics. 2005;122(2):024901. [PubMed]

60. Zhang C, et al. An accurate, residue-level, pair potential of mean force for folding and binding based on the distance-scaled, ideal-gas reference state. Protein Sci. 2004;13(2):400–411. [PubMed]

61. Lee M, Yang R, Duan Y. Comparison between Generalized-Born and Poisson–Boltzmann methods in physics-based scoring functions for protein structure prediction. Journal of Molecular Modeling. 2005;12(1):101–110. [PubMed]

62. Dehouck Y, Gilis D, Rooman M. A New Generation of Statistical Potentials for Proteins. Biophys J. 2006;90(11):4010–4017. [PubMed]

63. Dong Q, Wang X, Lin L. Novel knowledge-based mean force potential at the profile level. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

64. Tobi D, Elber R. Distance-dependent, pair potential for protein folding: Results from linear optimization. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics. 2000;41(1):40–46. [PubMed]

65. Zhang J, Chen R, Liang J. Empirical potential function for simplified protein models: Combining contact and local sequence-structure descriptors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics. 2006;63(4):949–960. [PubMed]

66. Simons KT, et al. Improved recognition of native-like protein structures using a combination of sequence-dependent and sequence-independent features of proteins. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics. 1999;34(1):82–95. [PubMed]

67. Vallat BK, et al. Building and assessing atomic models of proteins from structural templates. to be submitted. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

68. Miyazawa S, Jernigan RL. Residue - Residue Potentials with a Favorable Contact Pair Term and an Unfavorable High Packing Density Term, for Simulation and Threading. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1996;256(3):623–644. [PubMed]

69. Tobi D, et al. On the design and analysis of protein folding potentials. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics. 2000;40(1):71–85. [PubMed]

70. Michele V, Eytan D. Pairwise contact potentials are unsuitable for protein folding. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 1998;109(24):11101–11108.

71. Buchete NV, Straub JE, Thirumalai D. Development of novel statistical potentials for protein fold recognition. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2004;14(2):225–232. [PubMed]

72. Pettersen EF, et al. UCSF Chimera - A visualization system for exploratory research and analysis. Journal of Computational Chemistry. 2004;25(13):1605–1612. [PubMed]

PubMed Central Canada is a service of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) working in partnership with the National Research Council's national science library in cooperation with the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S. National Library of Medicine(NCBI/NLM). It includes content provided to the PubMed Central International archive by participating publishers. |