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BMC Genomics. 2009; 10: 282.
Published online Jun 25, 2009. doi:  10.1186/1471-2164-10-282
PMCID: PMC2714351
Analysis of salivary transcripts and antigens of the sand fly Phlebotomus arabicus
Jitka Hostomská,1 Věra Volfová,1 Jianbing Mu,2 Mark Garfield,3 Iva Rohoušová,1 Petr Volf,1 Jesus G Valenzuela,corresponding author2 and Ryan C Jochimcorresponding author2
1Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Parasitology, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Czech Republic
2Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA
3Research Technologies Branch, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Jitka Hostomská: jitka.hostomska/at/centrum.cz; Věra Volfová: veravolf/at/seznam.cz; Jianbing Mu: jmu/at/niaid.nih.gov; Mark Garfield: mgarfield/at/niaid.nih.gov; Iva Rohoušová: rohousova/at/seznam.cz; Petr Volf: volf/at/cesnet.cz; Jesus G Valenzuela: jvalenzuela/at/niaid.nih.gov; Ryan C Jochim: rjochim/at/niaid.nih.gov
Received March 17, 2009; Accepted June 25, 2009.
Abstract
Background
Sand fly saliva plays an important role in blood feeding and Leishmania transmission as it was shown to increase parasite virulence. On the other hand, immunity to salivary components impedes the establishment of infection. Therefore, it is most desirable to gain a deeper insight into the composition of saliva in sand fly species which serve as vectors of various forms of leishmaniases. In the present work, we focused on Phlebotomus (Adlerius) arabicus, which was recently shown to transmit Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel.
Results
A cDNA library from salivary glands of P. arabicus females was constructed and transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant protein families identified were SP15-like proteins, ParSP25-like proteins, D7-related proteins, yellow-related proteins, PpSP32-like proteins, antigen 5-related proteins, and 34 kDa-like proteins. Sequences coding for apyrases, hyaluronidase and other putative secreted enzymes were also represented, including endonuclease, phospholipase, pyrophosphatase, amylase and trehalase. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of 20 proteins predicted to be secreted in the salivary proteome. Humoral response of mice bitten by P. arabicus to salivary antigens was assessed and many salivary proteins were determined to be antigenic.
Conclusion
This transcriptomic analysis of P. arabicus salivary glands is the first description of salivary proteins of a sand fly in the subgenus Adlerius. Proteomic analysis of P. arabicus salivary glands produced the most comprehensive account in a single sand fly species to date. Detailed information and phylogenetic relationships of the salivary proteins are provided, expanding the knowledge base of molecules that are likely important factors of sand fly-host and sand fly-Leishmania interactions. Enzymatic and immunological investigations further demonstrate the value of functional transcriptomics in advancing biological and epidemiological research that can impact leishmaniasis.
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