1. Myers RA, Worm B. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature. 2003;423:280–283. [PubMed] 2. Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, et al. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science. 2006;314:787–790. [PubMed] 3. Sibert J, Hampton J, Kleiber P, Maunder M. Biomass, size, and trophic status of top predators in the pacific ocean. Science. 2006;314:1773–1776. [PubMed] 4. Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, et al. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science. 2001;293:629–637. [PubMed]
5. Halpern BS, Warner RR. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecology Letters. 2002;5:361–366.
6. Roberts CM, Bohnsack JA, Gell F, Hawkins JP, Goodridge R. Effects of marine reserves on adjacent fisheries. Science. 2001;294:1920–1923. [PubMed] 7. Sala E, Aburto-Oropeza O, Paredes G, Parra I, Barrera JC, et al. A general model for designing networks of marine reserves. Science. 2002;298:1991–1993. [PubMed] 8. Conover DO, Munch SB. Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science. 2002;297:94–96. [PubMed]
9. Hilborn R, Stokes K, Maguire J-J, Smith T, Botsford LW, et al. When can marine reserves improve fisheries management? Ocean & Coastal Management. 2004;47:197–205.
10. Wood LJ, Fish L, Laughren J, Pauly D. Assessing progress towards global marine protection targets: Shortfalls in information and action. UBC Fisheries Centre Working Paper Series. 2007;#2007-03:1–39.
11. Mora C, Andréfouët S, Costello MJ, Kranenburg C, Rollo A, et al. Coral reefs and the global network of marine protected areas. Science. 2006;312:1750–1751. [PubMed] 12. Sale PF, Cowen RK, Danilowicz BS, Jones GP, Kritzer JP, et al. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2005;20:74–80. [PubMed]
13. Coase RH. The problem of social cost. The Journal of Law and Economics. 1960;3:1.
14. Walters C. Impacts of dispersal, ecological interactions, and fishing effort dynamics on efficacy of marine protected areas: How large should protected areas be? Bulletin of marine science. 2000;66:745–757.
15. Walters C. Designing fisheries management systems that do not depend upon accurate stock assessment. In: Pitcher TJ, Hart PJB, Pauly D, editors. Reinventing fisheries management. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1998. pp. 279–288.
16. Dayton PK. Reversal of the burden of proof in fisheries management. Science. 1998;279:821–822.
17. Margules CR, Pressey RL. Systematic conservation planning. Nature. 2000;405:243–253. [PubMed]
18. Stewart R, Possingham H. Efficiency, costs and trade-offs in marine reserve system design. Environmental Modeling and Assessment. 2005;10:203–213.
19. Stewart RR, Noyce T, Possingham HP. Opportunity cost of ad hoc marine reserve design decisions: An example from south australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 2003;253:25–38.
20. Game ET, Grantham HS. St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: University of Queensland and Pacific Marine Analysis and Research Association; 2008. Marxan user manual: For marxan version 1.8.10. pp. 1–127.
21. Sumaila UR, Marsden AD, Watson R, Pauly D. A global ex-vessel fish price database: Construction and applications. Journal of Bioeconomics. 2007;9:39–51.
23. Tetreault I, Ambrose RF. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take mpas. Ecological Applications. 2007;17:2251–2267. [PubMed]
24. Halpern BS. The impact of marine reserves: Do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications. 2003;13:S117–S137.
25. Gaylord B, Gaines S, Siegel D, Carr M. Marine reserves exploit population structure and life history in potentially improving fisheries yields. Ecological Applications. 2005;15:2180–2191.
26. Lindholm JB, Auster PJ, Ruth M, Kaufman L. Modeling the effects of fishing and implications for the design of marine protected areas: Juvenile fish responses to variations in seafloor habitat. Conservation Biology. 2001;15:424–437.
27. Zacharias MA, Howes DE, Harper JR, Wainwright P. The british columbia marine ecosystem classification: Rationale, development, and verification. Coastal Management. 1998;26:105–124.
28. Russ GR, Alcala AC. Marine reserves: Rates and patterns of recovery and decline of large predatory fish. Ecological Applications. 1996;6:947–961.
29. Collie JS, Hall SJ, Kaiser MJ, Poiner IR. A quantitative analysis of fishing impacts on shelf-sea benthos. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2000;69:785–798.
30. Roberts CM, Hawkins JP, Gell FR. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 2005;360:123–132. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
31. Polacheck T. Year around closed areas as a management tool. Natural Resource Modeling. 1990;4:327–354.
32. Pauly D, Christensen V, Guenette S, Pitcher TJ, Sumaila UR, et al. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature. 2002;418:689–695. [PubMed]
33. Collie J, Gislason H. Biological reference points for fish stocks in a multispecies context. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2001;58:2167–2176.
34. Fernandes L, Day J, Lewis A, Slegers S, Kerrigan B, et al. Establishing representative no-take areas in the great barrier reef: Large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conservation Biology. 2005;19:1733–1744. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00302.X.
35. Johannes REF, M.M.R. Hamilton RJ. Ignore fishers' knowledge and miss the boat. Fish & Fisheries. 2000;1:257.
36. Walters CJ, Martell SJD. New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 2004. Fisheries ecology and management.
37. Hastings A, Botsford LW. Equivalence in yield from marine reserves and traditional fisheries management. Science. 1999;284:1537–1538. [PubMed]
38. Samoilys MA, Martin-Smith KM, Giles BG, Cabrera B, Anticamara JA, et al. Effectiveness of five small philippines' coral reef reserves for fish populations depends on site-specific factors, particularly enforcement history. Biological Conservation. 2007;136:584–601.
39. Schrank WE. Is there any hope for fisheries management? Marine Policy. 2007;31:299–307.
40. Palumbi SR. Marine reserves and ocean neighborhoods: The spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 2004;29:31–68.
41. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F., Jr. Fishing down marine food webs. Science. 1998;279:860–863. [PubMed]
42. Ball IR, Possingham H. 2000. Marxan (v1.8.2): Marine reserve design using spatially explicit annealing, a manual.
43. Possingham HP, Ball IR, Andelman S. Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In: Ferson S, Burgman M, editors. Quantitative methods for conservation biology. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000. pp. 291–305.
44. Kirkpatrick S, Gelatt CD, Vecchi MP. Optimization by simulated annealing. Science. 1983;220:671–680. [PubMed]