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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Horm Metab Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 June 29.
Published in final edited form as:
Horm Metab Res. 2009 April; 41(4): 261–270.
Published online 2009 January 20. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1119377

Table 1

Early hominid species, existence dates, encephalization and proxy estimates of body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), and resting energy expenditure (REE)

TaxonDates (MY)Height (m)Weight (kg)BMI (kg/m2)BSA (m2)REE (kcal/d)Brain weight (g)Brain weight/Body weight
Australopithecus afarensis3.9-3.01.511.05452919.7426.301.380.8812167034349.615.0

Australopithecus africanus3.0-2.41.381.15413021.5322.681.240.95109576244810.914.9

Paranthropus boisei2.3-1.41.371.24493426.1122.111.331.06117584951410.515.1

Paranthropus robustus1.9-1.41.321.10403222.9626.451.190.95104975952313.116.3

Homo habilis1.9-1.61.311.00373221.5632.001.140.88100970860116.218.8

Homo rudolfensis2.4-1.61.601.50605123.4422.671.621.441433115873612.314.4

Homo ergaster1.9-1.71.801.60665620.3721.881.841.581625126384912.915.2

Homo sapiensexisting1.751.61584918.9418.901.711.5015071198135023.327.6

BMI calculated as weight (kg) divided by squared height in meters

BSA is calculated using the formula of DuBois el al.[125] [BSA=weight (kg)0.425 × height (cm)0.725 × 0.007184]

REE calculated using the formula of Roberston and Reid [126] based on BSA and attribution of specific age-energy coefficient. All hominids were assumed to have an age of 25 years. Age Coefficients (AC) were: Male (M) = 36.8; Female (F) = 33.4. The formula is: AC × BSA × 24. Table modified from McHenry et al. (2000) [84] and Aiello et al. (2002) [80]