Ainsworth MDS, Wittig BA. Attachment and exploratory behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. In: Foss BM, editor. Determinants of Infant Behavior. Vol. 4. Methuen; London: 1969. pp. 113–136.
 Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall; Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: 1977.
 Barron S, Kelly SJ, Riley EP. Neonatal alcohol exposure alters suckling behavior in neonatal rat pups. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992;39:423–428. [PubMed]  Barron S, Riley EP. Pup-induced maternal behavior in adult and juvenile rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1985;9:360–365. [PubMed]  Bayer SA, Altman J, Russo RJ, Zhang X. Timetables of neurogenesis in the human brain based on experimentally determined patterns in the rat. Neurotoxicology. 1993;14:83–144. [PubMed]
 Beeghly M, Tronick EZ. Effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine in early infancy: Toxic effects on the process of mutual regulation. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1994;15:158–175.
 Blanchard BA, Hannigan JH. Prenatal ethanol exposure: Effects on androgen and nonandrogen dependent behaviors and on gonadal development in male rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1994;16:31–39. [PubMed]  Boggan WO, Randall CL, Dodds HM. Delayed sexual maturation in female C57Bl/6J mice prenatally exposed to alcohol. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1979;23:117–125. [PubMed]
 Bowlby J. Attachment. Vol. 1. Basic Books; New York: 1969. Attachment and Loss.
 Brain PF, Ajarem JS, Petkov VV. The utility of ethological assessments of murine agonistic interactions in behavioural teratology: The fetal alcohol syndrome. In: Olivier B, Mos J, Brain PF, editors. Ethopharmacology of Agonistic Behavior in Animals and Humans. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; Boston: 1987. pp. 110–121.
 Brown RT, Coles CD, Smith IE, Platzman KA, Silverstein J, Erickson S, Falek A. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure at school age. II. Attention and behavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1991;13:369–376. [PubMed]
 Carmichael-Olson H, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Streissguth AP, Bookstein FL. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and school problems in late childhood: A longitudinal prospective study. Development and Psychopathology. 1992;4:341–359.
 Carmichael-Olson H, Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Bookstein FL, Thiede K. Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioral and learning problems in early adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:1187–1194. (Tech. Rept. No. 94-02), Seattle, University of Washington, Pregnancy & Health Study. [PubMed]  Chernick V, Childiaeva R, Ioffe S. Effects of maternal alcohol intake and smoking on neonatal electroencephalogram and anthropometric measurements. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983;146:41–47. [PubMed]  Coles CD, Brown RT, Smith IE, Platzman KA, Erickson S, Falek A. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure at school age. I. Physical and cognitive development. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1991;13:357–367. [PubMed]  Coles CD, Platzman KA. Behavioral development in children prentally exposed to drugs and alcohol. Int J Addictions. 1993;28:1393–1433. [PubMed]  Cosmides L. The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition. 1989;31:187–276. [PubMed]  Creighton-Taylor JA, Rudeen PK. Prenatal ethanol exposure and opiatergic influence on puberty in the female rat. Alcohol. 1991;8:187–191. [PubMed]  Dahlgren IL, Matuszczyk JV, Hård E. Sexual orientation in male rats prenatally exposed to ethanol. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1991;13:267–269. [PubMed]  Driscoll CD, Streissguth AP, Riley EP. Prenatal alcohol exposure: Comparability of effects in humans and animal models. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1990;12:231–237. [PubMed]  Elis J, Kršiak M. Effect of alcohol administration during pregnancy on social behaviour of offspring of mice. Activitas Nervosa Superior. 1975;17:281–282. [PubMed]  Famy C, Streissguth AP, Unis A. Mental illness in adult patients with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:552–554. [PubMed]  Field T. Attachment and separation in young children. Ann Rev Psychol. 1996;47:541–561. [PubMed]
 Freier K. In utero drug exposure and maternal-infant interaction: The complexities of the dyad and their environment. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1994;14:176–188.
 Goldschmidt L, Richardson G, Stoffer D, Geva D, Day N. Prenatal alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age six: A nonlinear fit. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:763–770. [PubMed]
 Grant T, Ernst C, Streissguth A, Porter J. An advocacy program for mothers with FAS/FAE. In: Streissguth AP, Kanter J, editors. The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. University of Washington Press; Seattle: 1997. pp. 102–112. Tech. Rept. No. 96-13.
 Hård E, Musi B, Dahlgren IL, Engel J, Larsson K, Liljequist S, Lindh AS. Impaired maternal behaviour and altered central serotonergic activity in the adult offspring of chronically ethanol treated dams. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. 1985;56:347–353. [PubMed]  Hård E, Dahlgren IL, Engel J, Larsson K, Liljequist S, Lindh AS, Musi B. Development of sexual behavior in prenatally ethanol-exposed rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1984;14:51–61. [PubMed]  Hilakivi L. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on neonatal sleep-wake behavior and adult alcohol consumption in rats. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. 1986;59:36–42. [PubMed]  Hilakivi L, Tuomisto L, Hilakviv I, Kiianmaa K, Hellevuo K, Hyytia P. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on neonatal sleep-wake behavior and adult alcohol consumption in the AA and ANA rat lines. Alcohol. 1987;22:231–240. [PubMed]  Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Sokol RJ, Martier SS, Ager JW, Kaplan-Estrin MG. Teratogenic effects of alcohol on infant development. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:174–183. [PubMed]  Jones KL, Smith DW. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet. 1972;2:999–1001. [PubMed]  Kehoe P, Shoemaker W. Opioid-dependent behaviors in infant rats: Effects of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991;39:389–394. [PubMed]  Kelly SJ. Alcohol exposure during development alters hypothalamic neurotransmitter content. J Neural Transm. 1996;103:55–67. [PubMed]  Kelly SJ. Effects of alcohol exposure and artificial rearing during development on septal and hippocampal neurotransmitters in adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:670–676. [PubMed]  Kelly SJ, Dillingham RJ. Social behavior and the amygdala region are altered by perinatal alcohol exposure. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1994;16:377–384. [PubMed]  Kelly SJ, Tran TD. Alcohol exposure alters social recognition and social communication in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997;19:383–389. [PubMed]  Kršiak J, Elis J, Pöschlová N, Mašek K. Increased aggressiveness and lower brain serotonin levels in offspring of mice given alcohol during gestation. J Stud Alcohol. 1977;38:1696–1704. [PubMed]
 LaDue RA, Streissguth AP, Randels SP. Clinical considerations pertaining to adolescents and adults with fetal alcohol syndrome. In: Sonderegger TB, editor. Perinatal Substance Abuse: Research Findings and Clinical Implications. Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore: 1992. pp. 104–133.
 Lemoine P, Lemoine PH. Avenir des enfants de meres alcooliques (étude des 105 cas retrouvées a l’âge adulte) et quelques constations d’interêt prophylactique. Ann Pediatr. 1992;39:226–235. [PubMed]  Lynn W, Reid AJ, Midmer DK, Diringer A, Carroll JC, Stewart DE. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes. Can Med Assoc J. 1996;154:785–799. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
 Martin DC, Martin JC, Streissguth AP, Lund CA. Sucking frequency and amplitude in newborns as a function of maternal drinking and smoking. In: Galanter M, editor. Currents in Alcoholism. Grune and Stratton, Inc.; New York: 1979. pp. 359–366.
 McGivern RF, Raum WJ, Handa RJ, Sokol RZ. Comparison of two weeks versus one week of prenatal ethanol exposure in the rat on gonadal organ weights, sperm count and onset of puberty. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1992;14:351–358. [PubMed]  Meares R, Penman R, Milgrom-Friedman J, Baker K. Some origins of the “difficult” child: The Brazelton scale and the mother’s view of her newborn’s character. Br J Med Psychol. 1982;55:77–86. [PubMed]
 Meltzoff AN. The human infant as homo imitans. In: Zentall TR, Galef BG Jr., editors. Social Learning. Psychological and Biological Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; Hillsdale, NJ: 1988. pp. 319–341.
 Meyer LS, Riley EP. Social play in juvenile rats prenatally exposed to alcohol. Teratology. 1986;34:1–7. [PubMed]  Minetti S, Fulginiti S. Sexual receptivity of adult female rats prenatally intoxicated with alcohol on gestational day 8. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1991;13:531–534. [PubMed]
 Mrazek PB, Haggerty RJ. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. National Academic Press; Washington, DC: 1994.
 Ness JW, Franchina JJ. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on rat pups’ ability to elicit retrieval behavior from dams. Dev Psychobiol. 1990;23:85–99. [PubMed]
 O’Connor MJ, Sigman M, Kasari C. Attachment behavior of infants exposed prenatally to alcohol: Mediating effects of infant affect and mother-infant interaction. Dev Psychopathol. 1992;4:243–256.
 O’Connor MJ. The implications of attachment theory for the socioemotional development of children exposed to alcohol prenatally. In: Spohr H-L, Steinhausen HC, editors. Alcohol, Pregnancy and the Developing Child. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge: 1996. pp. 183–206.
 Panksepp J, Beatty WW. Social deprivation and play in rats. Behav Neural Biol. 1980;30:197–206. [PubMed]  Panksepp J, Siviy S, Normansell L. The psychobiology of play: Theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1984;10:465–492. [PubMed]
 Ragozin AS, Landesman-Dwyer S, Streissguth AP. The relationship between mothers’ drinking habits and children’s home environments. In: Seixas FA, editor. Currents in Alcoholism. Vol. 4. Grune and Stratton, Inc.; New York: 1978. pp. 39–49.
 Rockwood GA, Riley EP. Nipple attachment behavior in rat pups exposed to alcohol in utero. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1990;12:383–389. [PubMed]  Royalty J. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile playfighting and postpubertal aggression in rats. Psychol Rep. 1990;66:551–560. [PubMed]  Sampson PD, Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Bookstein FL. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal alcohol: II. Partial least squares analysis. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1989;11:477–491. [PubMed]  Scher M, Richardson G, Coble P, Day N, Stoffer D. The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: Disturbances in neonatal sleep cycling and arousal. Pediatr Res. 1988;24:101–105. [PubMed]
 Sprangler G, Fremmer-Bombik E, Grossman K. Social and individual determinants of infant attachment security and disorganization. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1996;17:127–139.
 Steinhausen HC. Psychopathology and cognitive functioning in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. In: Spohr H-L, Steinhausen HC, editors. Alcohol, Pregnancy and the Developing Child. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge: 1996. pp. 227–248.
 Steinhausen HC, Nestler V, Spohr H-L. Development and psychopathology of children with the fetal alcohol syndrome. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1982;3:49–54. [PubMed]  Stock DL, Streissguth AP, Martin DC. Neonatal sucking as an outcome variable: Comparison of quantitative and clinical assessments. Early Hum Dev. 1985;10:273–278. [PubMed]
 Stoffer DS, Scher MS, Richardson GA, Day NL, Coble P. A Walsh-Fourier analysis of the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption on neonatal sleep-state cycling. Journal of American Statistics Association. 1988;83:954–963.
 Stone WS, Altman HJ, Hall J, Arankowsky-Sandoval G, Parekh P, Gold PE. Prenatal exposure to alcohol in adult rats: Relationships between sleep and memory deficits, and effects of glucose administration on memory. Brain Res. 1996;742:98–106. [PubMed]  Streissguth AP, Aase JM, Clarren SK, Randels SP, LaDue RA, Smith DF. Fetal alcohol syndrome in adolescents and adults. JAMA. 1991;265:1961–1967. [PubMed]
 Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Kogan J, Bookstein FL. Final Report to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) University of Washington, Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit; Seattle: 1996. Understanding the Occurrence of Secondary Disabilities in Clients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) Tech. Rept. No. 96-06.
 Streissguth A, Barr H, Kogan J, Bookstein F. Primary and secondary disabilities in fetal alcohol syndrome. In: Streissguth AP, Kanter J, editors. The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. University of Washington Press; Seattle: 1997. pp. 25–39. Tech. Rept. No. 96-13.
 Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Martin DC. Maternal alcohol use and neonatal habituation assessed with the Brazelton scale. Child Dev. 1983;54:1109–1118. [PubMed]
 Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Darby BL, Ervin CH. Predicting 4-Year IQ with the Mother-Infant Interaction Scale (MIIS) University of Washington, Pregnancy and Health Study; Seattle: 1991.
 Streissguth AP, Bookstein FL, Sampson PD, Barr HM. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal alcohol: Part III. PLS analyses of neuropsychologic tests. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1989;11:493–507. [PubMed]
 Streissguth AP, Bookstein FL, Sampson PD, Barr HM. Attention: Prenatal alcohol and continuities of vigilance and attentional problems from 4 through 14 years. Development and Psychopathology. 1995;7:419–446.
 Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Carmichael-Olson H, Bookstein FL, Barr HM, Scott M, Feldman J, Mirsky AF. Maternal drinking during pregnancy and attention/memory performance in 14-yearold children: A longitudinal prospective study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994;18:202–218. [PubMed]  Subramanian M. Lactation and prolactin release in foster dams suckling prenatally ethanol exposed pups. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16:891–894. [PubMed]
 Thomas A, Chess S, Birch HG. Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York University Press; New York: 1968.
 Thomas SE, Kelly SJ, Mattson SN, Riley EP. Social abilities of children with fetal alcohol syndrome: A comparison to cognitivelymatched and normal control children. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:528–533. [PubMed]  Tremblay RE, Pihl RO, Vitaro F, Dobkin PL. Predicting early onset of male antisocial behavior from preschool behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:732–739. [PubMed]  Tronick EZ. Emotions and emotional communication in infants. Am Psychol. 1989;44:112–119. [PubMed]  Wilson JH, Kelly SJ, Wilson MA. Early postnatal alcohol exposure in rats: Maternal behavior and estradiol levels. Physiol Behav. 1996;59:287–293. [PubMed]
 Yanai J, Ginsburg BE. A developmental study of ethanol effect on behavioural and physical development in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1977;1:325–333.
 Zimmerberg B, Ballard GA, Riley EP. The development of thermoregulation after prenatal exposure to alcohol in rats. Psychopharmacology. 1987;91:479–484. [PubMed]  Zimmerberg B, McDonald BC. Prenatal alcohol exposure influences the effects of neuroactive steroids on separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rat pups. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996;55:541–547. [PubMed]  Zimmerberg B, Tomlinson TM, Glaser J, Beckstead JW. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline. Alcohol. 1993;10:403–408. [PubMed]