Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as:
* of special interest
** of outstanding interest
1. Silverberg MJ, Abrams DI. AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: cancer occurrence in the antiretroviral therapy era. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007;19:446–451. [PubMed] 2. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, et al. Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:425–432. [PubMed] 3. Herida M, Mary-Krause M, Kaphan R, et al. Incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:3447–3453. [PubMed] 4. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:1823–1830. [PubMed] 5. Bedimo R, Chen RY, Accortt NA, et al. Trends in AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-infected patients: 1989–2002. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1380–1384. [PubMed] 6. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980–2002. AIDS. 2006;20:1645–1654. [PubMed] 7. Bower M, Powles T, Nelson M, et al. HIV-related lung cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003;17:371–375. [PubMed] 8. Hessol NA, Seaberg EC, Preston-Martin S, et al. Cancer risk among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:978–985. [PubMed] 9. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, et al. Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:314–320. [PubMed] 10. Bahl S, Theis B, Nishri D, Marrett LD. Changing incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes Control. 2008 [PubMed] 11. Biggar RJ, Chaturvedi AK, Goedert JJ, Engels EA. AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:962–972. [PubMed] 12. Franceschi S, Maso LD, Rickenbach M, et al. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Cancer. 2008 [PMC free article] [PubMed] 13. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Clumeck N, et al. The changing pattern of Kaposi sarcoma in patients with HIV, 1994–2003: the EuroSIDA Study. Cancer. 2004;100:2644–2654. [PubMed] 14. Polesel J, Clifford GM, Rickenbach M, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2008;22:301–306. [PubMed] 15. Shiels MS, Cole SR, Wegner S, et al. Effect of HAART on Incident Cancer and Noncancer AIDS Events Among Male HIV Seroconverters. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:485–490. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 16. Biggar RJ, Jaffe ES, Goedert JJ, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma and immunodeficiency in persons with HIV/AIDS. Blood. 2006;108:3786–3791. [PubMed] 17. Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, et al. Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer. 2005;104:1505–1511. [PubMed] 18. Kirk O, Pedersen C, Cozzi-Lepri A, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2001;98:3406–3412. [PubMed] 19. Ledergerber B, Egger M, Erard V, et al. AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses occurring after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. JAMA. 1999;282:2220–2226. [PubMed] 20. Mocroft A, Katlama C, Johnson AM, et al. AIDS across Europe, 1994–98: the EuroSIDA study. Lancet. 2000;356:291–296. [PubMed] 21.
Ferreros I, Lumbreras B, Hurtado I, et al. The shifting pattern of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected and non-infected injecting drug users. Addiction. 2008;103:651–659. [PubMed]
* Unique in that cause-specific mortality rates were compared in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users
Patel P, Hanson DL, Sullivan PS, et al. Incidence of types of cancer among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population in the United States, 1992–2003. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:728–736. [PubMed]
** Large cohort study evaluating risk factors and trends in cancer among HIV-infected patients. One of few studies to evaluate NADM risk with respect to both calendar year and individual ART use.
Engels EA, Biggar RJ, Hall HI, et al. Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:187–194. [PubMed]
** One of few cancer registry match studies to include both reported HIV and AIDS cases. Also evaluated association of NADMs with AIDS diagnosis and CD4 T-cell counts
Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, et al. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1143–1153. [PubMed]
* One of few studies to evaluate NADM risk with respect to both calendar year and individual ART use. Also unique in that few other AIDS Cancer registry match studies include data on individual ART use.
Long JL, Engels EA, Moore RD, Gebo KA Incidence and outcomes of malignancy in the HAART era in an urban cohort of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2008;22:489–496. [PubMed]
* Provides interesting analysis of NADM trends, clinical characteristics and survival compared to patients with ADM
Piketty C, Selinger-Leneman H, Grabar S, et al. Marked increase in the incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2008;22:1203–1211. [PubMed]
** Largest recent study to focus exclusively on anal cancer
Chaturvedi AK, Pfeiffer RM, Chang L, et al. Elevated risk of lung cancer among people with AIDS. AIDS. 2007;21:207–213. [PubMed]
** Large and well-designed U.S.-based AIDS and cancer registry match study of lung cancer. Indirect adjustment used to control for smoking.
Kirk GD, Merlo C, P OD, et al. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:103–110. [PubMed]
** Despite small numbers, provided comparison to HIV-uninfected injection drug users and had more complete adjustment for smoking compared to other studies.
Rimland D, Guest JL Increasing incidence of prostate cancer in the Atlanta VA cohort study (HAVACS) [abstract]. 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 25–28 February; Los Angeles, CA. 2007. Abstract 874.
* Evaluated both prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen testing rates over time.
30. Crum-Cianflone N, Marconi V, Weintrob A, et al. Increased incidence of skin cancers among HIV-infected persons [abstract]. 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 22–25 July; Sydney, Australia. 2007. Abstract MOPEB086.
31. Crum-Cianflone N, Marconi V, Weintrob A, et al. A Trends in AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers among HIV-infected patients: a 20-year study [abstract]. 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 22–25 July; Sydney, Australia. 2007. Abstract MOPEB084.
Silverberg MJ, Neuhaus J, Bower M, et al. Risk of cancers during interrupted antiretroviral therapy in the SMART study. AIDS. 2007;21:1957–1963. [PubMed]
** Broad generalizability given many countries involved, and one of few randomized clinical trials to focus on incidence and risk factors for malignancies
Bruyand M, Thiebaut R, Lawson-Ayayi S, et al. Immunodeficiency and Risk of AIDS-defining and Non-AIDS-defining Cancers: ANRSCO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 1998 to 2006 [abstract]. 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 3–6 February; Boston, MA. 2008. Abstract 15.
** Novel evaluation of duration exposed to low CD4+ T-cell counts
Crum-Cianflone N, Huppler Hullsiek K, Ganesan A, et al. The impact of nelfinavir on cancer development among HIV-infected persons [abstract]. 17th International AIDS Conference; 3–8 August; Mexico City, Mexico. 2008. Abstract THPE0232.
** One of few studies to evaluate individual antiretrovirals on cancer risk
Serraino D, Piselli P, Busnach G, et al. Risk of cancer following immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients and in HIV-positive individuals in southern Europe. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:2117–2123. [PubMed]
* Although much smaller in size compared to the Grulich et al. meta-analysis on same topic, this article provides a novel comparison of NADM risk in two immunosuppressed populations: patients with HIV and transplant recipients.
36. Steigbigel RT, Cooper DA, Kumar PN, et al. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:339–354. [PubMed] 37.
D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, et al. Incidence and Epidemiology of Anal Cancer in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:491–499. [PubMed]
** Small numbers but one of few studies to include HIV-uninfected controls for study of anal cancer and provided comprehensive evaluation of risk factors including sexual behaviors and smoking
38. Blum L, Pellet C, Agbalika F, et al. Complete remission of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma associated with undetectable human herpesvirus-8 sequences during anti-HIV protease therapy. AIDS. 1997;11:1653–1655. [PubMed] 39. Cattelan AM, Calabro ML, Aversa SM, et al. Regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma following antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors: biological correlates of clinical outcome. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35:1809–1815. [PubMed] 40. Cattelan AM, Calabro ML, Gasperini P, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma regression after highly active antiretroviral therapy: biologic correlates of clinical outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2001:44–49. [PubMed] 41. Conant MA, Opp KM, Poretz D, Mills RG. Reduction of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions following treatment of AIDS with ritonovir. AIDS. 1997;11:1300–1301. [PubMed] 42. Lebbe C, Blum L, Pellet C, et al. Clinical and biological impact of antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors on HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS. 1998;12:F45–F49. [PubMed] 43. Murphy M, Armstrong D, Sepkowitz KA, et al. Regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma following treatment with an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. AIDS. 1997;11:261–262. [PubMed] 44. Bower M, Fox P, Fife K, et al. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) prolongs time to treatment failure in Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS. 1999;13:2105–2111. [PubMed] 45. Gill J, Bourboulia D, Wilkinson J, et al. Prospective study of the effects of antiretroviral therapy on Kaposi sarcoma--associated herpesvirus infection in patients with and without Kaposi sarcoma. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;31:384–390. [PubMed] 46. Wolf T, Brodt HR, Fichtlscherer S, et al. Changing incidence and prognostic factors of survival in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:207–215. [PubMed] 47. Pati S, Pelser CB, Dufraine J, et al. Antitumorigenic effects of HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir: inhibition of Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2002;99:3771–3779. [PubMed] 48. Sgadari C, Barillari G, Toschi E, et al. HIV protease inhibitors are potent anti-angiogenic molecules and promote regression of Kaposi sarcoma. Nat Med. 2002;8:225–232. [PubMed] 49. Sgadari C, Monini P, Barillari G, Ensoli B. Use of HIV protease inhibitors to block Kaposi's sarcoma and tumour growth. Lancet Oncol. 2003;4:537–547. [PubMed] 50. Ikezoe T, Hisatake Y, Takeuchi T, et al. HIV-1 protease inhibitor, ritonavir: a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, enhanced the anticancer effects of docetaxel in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 2004;64:7426–7431. [PubMed] 51. Pajonk F, Himmelsbach J, Riess K, et al. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir inhibits proteasome function and causes apoptosis and radiosensitization in non-HIV-associated human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:5230–5235. [PubMed] 52. Gills JJ, Lopiccolo J, Tsurutani J, et al. Nelfinavir, A lead HIV protease inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum, anticancer agent that induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:5183–5194. [PubMed] 53. Gupta AK, Li B, Cerniglia GJ, et al. The HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir downregulates Akt phosphorylation by inhibiting proteasomal activity and inducing the unfolded protein response. Neoplasia. 2007;9:271–278. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 54. Pyrko P, Kardosh A, Wang W, et al. HIV-1 protease inhibitors nelfinavir and atazanavir induce malignant glioma death by triggering endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10920–10928. [PubMed]
55. Valdes F, Chow WA. The HIV protease inhibitor Nelfinavir inhibits human SW872 liposarcoma clonogenicity by inducing apoptosis and is associated with an increase in levels of SREBP-1 [abstract]. 95th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 27–31 March; Orlando, FL. 2004. Abstract 535.
56. Brunner TB, Geiger M, Grabenbauer GG, et al. Phase I trial of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir and chemoradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:2699–2706. [PubMed] 57. Gulick RM, Su Z, Flexner C, et al. Phase 2 study of the safety and efficacy of vicriviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, in HIV-1-Infected, treatment-experienced patients: AIDS clinical trials group 5211. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:304–312. [PubMed]
58. Gulick R, Su Z, Flexner C, et al. ACTG 5211: phase II study of the safety and efficacy of vicriviroc (VCV) in HIV-infected treatment experienced subjects: 48 week results [abstract]. 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 22–25 July; Sydney, Australia. 2007. Abstract TUAB102.
59. Saag M, Ive P, Heera J, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative trial of a novel CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc versus efavirenz, both in combination with Combivir (zidovudine [ZDV]/lamivudine [3TC]), for the treatment of antiretroviral naive patients infected with R5 HIV 1: Week 48 results of the MERIT study [abstract]. 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 22–25 July; Sydney, Australia. 2007. Abstract WESS104.
60. Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Goedert JJ. Association of cancer with AIDS-related immunosuppression in adults. JAMA. 2001;285:1736–1745. [PubMed] 61. Goedert JJ, Cote TR, Virgo P, et al. Spectrum of AIDS-associated malignant disorders. Lancet. 1998;351:1833–1839. [PubMed] 62. Grulich AE, Wan X, Law MG, et al. Risk of cancer in people with AIDS. AIDS. 1999;13:839–843. [PubMed] 63. Grulich AE, Li Y, McDonald A, et al. Rates of non-AIDS-defining cancers in people with HIV infection before and after AIDS diagnosis. AIDS. 2002;16:1155–1161. [PubMed] 64. Engels EA, Brock MV, Chen J, et al. Elevated incidence of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1383–1388. [PubMed] 65. Mbulaiteye SM, Biggar RJ, Goedert JJ, Engels EA. Immune deficiency and risk for malignancy among persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32:527–533. [PubMed] 66. Phelps RM, Smith DK, Heilig CM, et al. Cancer incidence in women with or at risk for HIV. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:753–757. [PubMed] 67. Biggar RJ, Kirby KA, Atkinson J, et al. Cancer risk in elderly persons with HIV/AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:861–868. [PubMed]
Marin B, Thiébaut R, Rondeau V, et al. Association between CD4 and HIV RNA with non AIDS-related causes of death in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) [abstract]. 4th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention; 22–25 July; Sydney, Australia. 2007. Abstract WEPEB019.
** Using data from CASCADE, this is the largest study to date on topic among patients with known duration of HIV infection
Baker JV, Peng G, Rapkin J, et al. CD4+ count and risk of non-AIDS diseases following initial treatment for HIV infection. AIDS. 2008;22:841–848. [PubMed]
* One of few randomized clinical trials to focus on malignancies. Provides a comprehensive overview of association between immunodeficiency and fatal malignancies and other fatal non-AIDS conditions
Monforte AD, Abrams D, Pradier C, et al. HIV-induced Immunodeficiency and Risk of Fatal AIDS-defining and Non-AIDS-defining Malignancies: Results from the D:A:D Study [abstract]. 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 25–28 February; Los Angeles, CA. 2007. Abstract 84.
* Excellent description of association of immunodeficiency and risk of fatal malignancies and risk factors for ADMs and NADMs
Bedimo R, Dunlap M, McGinnis K, et al. Trends in incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected vs. non-infected veterans in the HAART era: impact of immunosuppression [abstract]. 17th International AIDS Conference; 3–8 August; Mexico City, Mexico. 2008. Abstract MOPE0243.
** Large cohort study and one of few studies to include HIV-uninfected persons from same population (i.e., U.S. Veterans).
Nowicki MJ, Vigen C, Mack WJ, et al. Association of cells with natural killer (NK) and NKT immunophenotype with incident cancers in HIV-infected women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:163–168. [PubMed]
* Only recent study to evaluate innate immunity in relation to cancer risk in HIV patients.
Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:59–67. [PubMed]
** Large meta-analysis providing novel comparison of NADM risk in two immunosuppressed populations: patients with HIV or AIDS and transplant recipients.