Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. 1991 March; 29(3): 479–482.
PMCID: PMC269804

Comparison of Directigen FLU-A with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the rapid detection and identification of influenza A virus.


Directigen FLU-A, an enzyme immunoassay membrane test, was compared prospectively to isolation in cell culture and direct immunofluorescence (IF) for the detection of influenza A virus. One hundred ninety specimens were evaluated by Directigen FLU-A and cell culture; 184 of these specimens were also tested by direct IF. The sensitivity of Directigen FLU-A compared to isolation in cell culture and direct IF was 100%. The specificities of Directigen FLU-A compared to isolation and direct IF were identical, 91.6%. Fourteen specimens that were positive by Directigen FLU-A did not yield virus in culture; two of the specimens, however, were positive by direct IF, and four other specimens were not specimens of choice for the test. A positive Directigen result had positive predictive values of 62.6 and 75.0% compared to isolation and direct IF, respectively; a positive Directigen result with an intensity reading of 2+ or greater, however, had positive predictive values of 85 and 100% compared to isolation and direct IF, respectively. In all comparisons, the negative predictive value was 100%. There was no evidence that cross-reactivity occurred with non-influenza A antigens. Directigen FLU-A should serve as a convenient screening test for influenza A and as a rapid test supported by isolation in cell culture during an influenza outbreak.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (780K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Daisy JA, Lief FS, Friedman HM. Rapid diagnosis of influenza A infection by direct immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirates in adults. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jun;9(6):688–692. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dolin R, Reichman RC, Madore HP, Maynard R, Linton PN, Webber-Jones J. A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N Engl J Med. 1982 Sep 2;307(10):580–584. [PubMed]
  • Espy MJ, Smith TF, Harmon MW, Kendal AP. Rapid detection of influenza virus by shell vial assay with monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Oct;24(4):677–679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frank AL, Couch RB, Griffis CA, Baxter BD. Comparison of different tissue cultures for isolation and quantitation of influenza and parainfluenza viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jul;10(1):32–36. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grandien M, Pettersson CA, Gardner PS, Linde A, Stanton A. Rapid viral diagnosis of acute respiratory infections: comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the immunofluorescence technique for detection of viral antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Nov;22(5):757–760. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hall CB, Dolin R, Gala CL, Markovitz DM, Zhang YQ, Madore PH, Disney FA, Talpey WB, Green JL, Francis AB, et al. Children with influenza A infection: treatment with rimantadine. Pediatrics. 1987 Aug;80(2):275–282. [PubMed]
  • Harmon MW, Pawlik KM. Enzyme immunoassay for direct detection of influenza type A and adenovirus antigens in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jan;15(1):5–11. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LIU C. Rapid diagnosis of human influenza infection from nasal smears by means of fluorescein-labeled antibody. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1956 Aug-Sep;92(4):883–887. [PubMed]
  • Lui KJ, Kendal AP. Impact of influenza epidemics on mortality in the United States from October 1972 to May 1985. Am J Public Health. 1987 Jun;77(6):712–716. [PubMed]
  • McQuillin J, Madeley CR, Kendal AP. Monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B virus infections by immunofluorescence. Lancet. 1985 Oct 26;2(8461):911–914. [PubMed]
  • Minnich LL, Ray CG. Early testing of cell cultures for detection of hemadsorbing viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Feb;25(2):421–422. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Monto AS, Maassab HF, Bryan ER. Relative efficacy of embryonated eggs and cell culture for isolation of contemporary influenza viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Jan;13(1):233–235. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sarkkinen HK, Halonen PE, Salmi AA. Detection of influenza A virus by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-immunoassay from nasopharyngeal specimens. J Med Virol. 1981;7(3):213–220. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt NJ, Ota M, Gallo D, Fox VL. Monoclonal antibodies for rapid, strain-specific identification of influenza virus isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Oct;16(4):763–765. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shalit I, McKee PA, Beauchamp H, Waner JL. Comparison of polyclonal antiserum versus monoclonal antibodies for the rapid diagnosis of influenza A virus infections by immunofluorescence in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Nov;22(5):877–879. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stokes CE, Bernstein JM, Kyger SA, Hayden FG. Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B by 24-h fluorescent focus assays. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jul;26(7):1263–1266. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tominack RL, Hayden FG. Rimantadine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride use in influenza A virus infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Jun;1(2):459–478. [PubMed]
  • Walls HH, Harmon MW, Slagle JJ, Stocksdale C, Kendal AP. Characterization and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies developed for typing influenza A and influenza B viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Feb;23(2):240–245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waner JL, Whitehurst NJ, Downs T, Graves DG. Production of monoclonal antibodies against parainfluenza 3 virus and their use in diagnosis by immunofluorescence. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Oct;22(4):535–538. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waner JL, Whitehurst NJ, Jonas S, Wall L, Shalaby H. Isolation of viruses from specimens submitted for direct immunofluorescence test for respiratory syncytial virus. J Pediatr. 1986 Feb;108(2):249–250. [PubMed]
  • Waner JL, Whitehurst NJ, Todd SJ, Shalaby H, Wall LV. Comparison of directigen RSV with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the identification of respiratory syncytial virus. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Mar;28(3):480–483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)