The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related complex was identified in a mother and one of her nonidentical twins. Generalized lymphadenopathy was first noted in the infant at age 17 months, and that of the mother was incidentally discovered 6 months later. The father, who had had homosexual contacts before the conception of the twins, appeared to be in good health. No one in the family had constitutional symptoms or showed signs of opportunistic infection. Both parents and the patient had hypergammaglobulinemia, low T-helper-to-suppressor-cell ratio, and positive serum antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Attempts to isolate the virus from all family members were unsuccessful. The twin brother was in good health with a normal immunologic profile and negative antibody to human immunodeficiency virus.