A recently described herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2)-specific glycoprotein (gG-2) was purified on an immunoaffinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody. This purified antigen was used in an immunodot enzymatic assay on nitrocellulose paper for the detection of HSV-2 antibodies in human serum. The test was very sensitive in that HSV-2 antibodies were detected in the convalescent sera of 132 of 134 patients with recurrent genital infections in which HSV-2 had been isolated earlier. Antibodies to gG-2 were detected in 17% of sera obtained within 10 days after the onset of a primary HSV infection and in 95% of sera obtained more than 10 days after onset. The specificity of the immunodot assay was demonstrated by testing sera from 245 HSV-seronegative adults, 344 children, 29 nuns, and 13 patients with primary genital HSV-1 infections. None of these 631 sera was reactive with the gG-2 antigen. When compared with a microneutralization test, the immunodot assay was found to be more specific in detecting HSV-2 antibodies. Reproducibility of the gG-2 assay, obtained by retesting 391 sera, was 95%. Thus, this assay has the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility necessary for the measurement of HSV-2 antibodies in seroepidemiological studies.