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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptNIH Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
Nature. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 29, 2009.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC2681078
NIHMSID: NIHMS101327
Increasing use of stimulants warns of potential abuse
James M. Swanson* and Nora D. Volkow
*University of California, Irvine, Department of Pediatrics, Child Development Center, 19722 MacArthur Boulevard, Irvine, California 92612, USA
National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
James M Swanson, PhD, University of California, Irvine, Department of Pediatrics, Child Development Center, 19722 MacArthur Blvd, Irvine, CA 92612 USA, e-mail address: jmswanso/at/uci.edu <mailto: jmswanso/at/uci.edu>, telephone number: 949-824-1824; Nora D. Volkow, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Blvd, Room 5274, Bethesda, MD 20892, e-mail address: nvolkow/at/nida.nih.gov, <mailto: nvolkow/at/nida.nih.gov>, telephone number: 301-443-6480
 
SIR — Your Editorial ‘Defining natural’ (Nature452, 665–666; 2008) indicates that cognitive-enhancing drugs have only mild effects similar to caffeine, and the News story ‘Poll results: look who's doping’ (Nature452, 674–675; 2008) highlights the general increase in availability through Internet purchase and possibly diversion of prescriptions of the cognitive enhancers. However, by far the most frequently prescribed of these — the stimulant medications amphetamine and methylphenidate — have abuse potential and warrant particular concern.
The World Health Organization (WHO) tracks by country the yearly production, supply and consumption of psychotropic substances, including stimulant drugs. The most recent figures suggest to us that diversion of methylphenidate and amphetamine may be increasing in the United States. From 1995 to 2006, consumption estimates by the WHO and prescriptions recorded by the healthcare information company Verispan®-One National have both increased linearly. Moreover, the relative increase in the WHO estimates of consumption (268.9%), from 4.66 to 17.9 defined daily doses per 1,000 population, during this decade far exceeded the relative increase in number of prescriptions per year, from 15,044,359 to 30,137,136 (100.3%).
The greater increase in consumption could be related to a shift in the age of individuals treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, as more adults are now seeking diagnosis and treatment. This could influence debate over whether some prescriptions for clinical treatment of adults are being appropriated instead for performance enhancement or recreational purposes. History teaches us that either of these could escalate into misuse.
We have serious concerns that the dramatic increase in national consumption and the smaller, but still large, increase in annual prescriptions of stimulant medications could be signalling possible diversaion, and should make us vigilant to avoid a potential repeat of past episodes of potential abuse.